Sunni Muslims' Al-Mahdi (Mehdi)
Al-Mahdi (the Mahdi) is an Arabic word which means " The Guided ". In Persian, Turkish and Urdu languages, he is called Mehdi (instead of Mahdi). The Mahdi is the title of this important Muslim leader, not his actual name. He is supposed to be a descendant of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم .
The Mahdi is mentioned in several Hadiths. There will be signs indicating the rise of the Mahdi, some of them will occur immediately before he appears and some of them during the initial period after he appears.
Many individuals in the past falsely claimed to be the Mahdi. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (the founder of Ahmadiya or Qadiani Movement) was one of those who falsely claimed to be the Mahdi.
1. Shia's Imam Mahdi vs. Sunni's Al-Mahdi
Both Sunni Muslims and Shia are awaiting a person whose is referred to as Al-Mahdi (Shia call him Imam Mahdi because they are expecting him to be their 12th Imam). However, both the identity and characteristics of the Mahdi of the Sunnis are significantly different from the identity and characteristics of Shia's Imam Mahdi.
For information about Shia's Imam Mahdi, click here: Shia's Imam Mahdi
2. Khilafa (Caliphate)
The recommended governing method of the Muslim nation in Islam is called Khilafa (Caliphate) headed by a Khalifa (Caliph) who rules all lands controlled by Muslims. The Caliph is supposed to be chosen through a method called Bay'a (whereby Muslims offer allegiance to the Caliph) and the Caliph can be any good Muslim, regardless of which family clan or tribe he belongs to. The word Caliph means a successor, in other words, the one who comes after another ruler. After Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم four successive Caliphs reigned who enjoyed wide spread approval among Muslims when they were chosen. They followed the methodology of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم in governing. They are: Abu Bakr Al-Siddique, Omar bin Al-Khattab, Uthman bin Affan, and Ali bin Abi Taleb. After Ali, there was a dispute over who should be chosen next. Some people favored Ali's son Al-Hasan (who is Prophet Mohammad's grandson) while others favored Muawiya bin Abi Sufyan, who was a powerful governor of AsSham. Al-Hasan reigned only 6 months and then resigned. Muawiya reigned for several years and chose his son Yazid to succeed him. Thus, the Umayya dynasty (Muawiya's tribe is called Bani Umayya) started. So, the Islamic Bay'a system was no longer followed. Under proper Caliphate system, any good Muslim can be chosen as Caliph. Instead under the dynasties that ruled the Muslims, the eligibility to become a ruler became restricted to the same ruling family or dynasty. Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم has accurately prophesied the governing methods that came to be followed after him and has prophesied that the proper Caliphate system will be applied again around the end of time. The Mahdi (Mehdi) is expected to rule as a proper Caliph.
تكون النبوة فيكم ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ، فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم تكون ملكا عاضا ، فيكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها الله إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم يكون ملكا جبريا ، فتكون ما شاء الله أن تكون ، ثم يرفعها إذا شاء أن يرفعها ، ثم تكون خلافة على منهاج النبوة ، ثم سكت
فقد روى الإمام أحمد عن النعمان بن بشير رضي الله عنه الله، قال:
كنا جلوساً في المسجد فجاء أبو ثعلبة الخشني فقال:
يا بشير بن سعد أتحفظ حديث رسول الله صلى الله عليه
وسلم في الأمراء، فقال حذيفة: أنا أحفظ خطبته.
فجلس أبو ثعلبة.
Based on Huzaifah, Allah's Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Prophecy will remain among you as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a caliphate according to the manner of prophecy as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a distressful kingdom which will remain as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a proud kingdom which will remain as long as Allah wishes it to remain, then Allah Most High will remove it. Then there will be a caliphate according to the manner followed during the prophethood (by the prophet)." Then he stopped. Habib said: "When Umar ibn AbdulAziz became caliph I wrote to him, mentioning this tradition to him and saying, "I hope you will be the Prince of the Faithful Believers after the distressful and the proud kingdoms." It pleased and charmed him, i.e. Umar ibn AbdulAziz." (Al-Tirmizi, Ahmad, Bayhaqi in Dala'il Nubuwwah)
Based on Abu Saeed Al Khudri, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Allah never sends a prophet or gives the Caliphate to a Caliph but that he (the prophet or the Caliph) has two groups of advisors: A group advising him to do good and exhorts him to do it, and the other group advising him to do evil and exhorts him to do it. But the protected person (against such evil advisors) is the one protected by Allah." (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
Based on Abu Saeed al-Khudri, Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "When oath of allegiance has been taken for two caliphs, kill the one for whom the oath was taken later." (Sahih Muslim - Hadith 4568 )
Narrated by Abu Huraira: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "The Israelites used to be ruled and guided by prophets: Whenever a prophet died, another would take over his place. There will be no prophet after me, but there will be Caliphs who will increase in number." The people asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What do you order us (to do)?" He said, "Obey the one who will be given the pledge of allegiance first. Fulfil their (i.e. the Caliphs) rights, for Allah will ask them about (any shortcoming) in ruling those Allah has put under their guardianship." (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
Jarir said: " While I was at Yemen, I met two men from Yemen called Zhu Kala and Zhu Amr, and I started telling them about Allah's Messenger. Zhu Amr said to me, "If what you are saying about your friend (i.e. the Prophet) is true, then he has died three days ago." Then both of them accompanied me to Medina, and when we had covered some distance on the way to Medina, we saw some riders coming from Medina. We asked them and they said, "Allah's Messenger has died and Abu Bakr has been appointed as the Caliph and the people are in a good state.' Then they said, "Tell your friend (Abu Bakr) that we have come (to visit him), and if Allah will, we will come again." So they both returned to Yemen. When I told Abu Bakr their statement, he said to me, "I wish you had brought them (to me)." Afterwards I met Zhu Amr, and he said to me, "O Jarir ! You have done a favor to me and I am going to tell you something, i.e. you, the nation of 'Arabs, will remain prosperous as long as you choose and appoint another chief whenever a former one is dead. But if authority is obtained by the power of the sword, then the rulers will become kings who will get angry, as kings get angry, and will be delighted as kings get delighted." (Sahih Al-Bukhari )
Narrated by Jabir bin Samura: I heard the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, "There will be twelve Muslim rulers (who will rule all the Islamic world)." He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, "All of them (those rulers) will be from Quraish." (Sahih Al-Bukhari ) Abu Dawud in his Sunan also reported this Hadith, but added to it "and the whole community will agree on each of them."
Narrated by Ibn Umar: Allah's Apostle صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "This matter (caliphate) will remain with Quraish even if only two of them were still existing." (Sahih Al-Bukhari )
Narrated by Abu Huraira: Allah's Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "The kingship belongs to Quraish, the legal authority (belongs) to the Ansar, the call to prayer (belongs) to the Abyssinians, and faithfulness (belongs) to Azd (Tribe in Yemen)." (Tirmizi)
Abdullah ibn Hawalah Al-Azdi said: "The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم placed his hand over my head and said:
"O Ibn Hawalah! When you see that the Khilafah (Caliphate) has settled (has its seat or capital) in the Holy Land (Palestine), then the earthquakes, tribulations and great events will have drawn near. The Hour, on that day, will be closer to the people than my hand is to your head." (Abu Dawud)
Yunus ibn Maysurah Al-Jiblani said: "The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
"This matter will be in Al-Madina, then in AsSham, then in the Al-Jazirah, then in Iraq, then in Al-Madina, then in Bayt Al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). And when it comes to Bayt al-Maqdis, then it will be in its homeland. And it will never go away from a people and afterwards return to them." (Nuaim bin Hammad's Kitab Al-Fitan)
3. The Mahdi's Name
There is no Hadith that tells us explicitly the actual name of the Mahdi. However, there are Hadiths in which Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم states that the Mahdi's name will be similar (or has connection) to the name of Prophet Mohammad , but he does not state that the Mahdi's name will be Mohammad. In addition to being called Mohammad, Prophet Mohammad (p) is also referred to in Quran as Al-Mustapha (the Chosen or Anointed), Al-Huda (Guide or Guidance), and Taha. Unfortunately, many Muslims believe these Hadiths about the Mahdi indicate that the Mahdi's name has to be Mohammad. These Hadith should be analyzed numerically to better understand what is meant by them.
Abdullah bin Masood has reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "The World will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man (referring to the Mahdi) of my Ahl Bayt (family) whose name will be like mine." (Abu Dawud & Tirmizi)
Abdullah. Ibn Masood reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Even if there remains only a day before the World ends, the almighty Allah will greatly prolong that day to send a man from me (my progeny), from members of my House (family). His name will be similar to my name and his father's name similar to my father's name. He will fill the Earth with equity (fairness) and justice, as it (previously) was filled with oppression and injustice." (Abu Dawud)
4. Description of the Mahdi (Mehdi) & his Lineage
Based on the Hadiths presented below, we can conclude that the Madhi (Mehdi) will be a descendant of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم . This means the Mahdi (Mehdi) is at least partly an Arab, but he does not have to be 100% Arab. Descendants of Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم exist throughout the Muslim World, not only in Arab countries.
1) He will be from the progeny of the Prophet and descendant of Fatima رضي الله عنها . Umm Salama رضي الله عنها reported: I heard the Prophet of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم saying, "The Mahdi will appear from Itrati (my family or progeny), from the descendants of Fatima." (Abu Dawud, Ibn Maja, Al-Haakim, Al-Albany)
2) He could be a descendant of either Al-Hasan or Al-Hussein رضي الله عنهم (sons of Fatima رضي الله عنها & Ali رضي الله عنه).
قال علي رضي الله عنه ونظر إلى ابنه الحسن فقال إن ابني هذا سيد كما سماه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وسيخرج من صلبه رجل يسمى باسم نبيكم يشبهه في الخلق ولا يشبهه في الخلق ثم ذكر قصة يملأ الأرض عدلا
Abu Iss'haq (Isaac) narrated that Imam Ali رضي الله عنه , once looked at his son Al-Hasan رضي الله عنه and said " This son of mine is a Sayyid (chief or master) as the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم named him (called him or gave him this title). From his reproductive organs (meaning from progeny or descendants) will come a man who is named by the name of your Prophet. He will resemble him (the Prophet) in character, but not in looks (physical appearance).' Then, he (Imam Ali) mentioned that he (the Mahdi) will fill the Earth with justice." (Abu Dawud)
: عن حذيفه , أن النبي (ص) قال
لو لم يبق من الدنيا إلا يوم واحد لطوّل الله عز وجل ذلك اليوم حتى يبعث رجلاً من ولدي اسمه اسمي، فقام سلمان الفارسي فقال: يا رسول الله، من أي ولدك؟ قال من ولدي هذا، وضرب بيده على الحسين
المودة لنعيم بن
حماد : ص 490
ج 10 ص
المحرقة على أهل
والزندقة لإبن حجر
الهيتمي: ص 249
Huzaifa narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
" If there is not left in this World except one day, Allah will lengthen it until He (Allah) sends a man from my children (or descendants), his name is (like) mine." So, Salman Al-Farsi stood up and said: O Messenger of Allah: From which of your children (or descendants)? He said: " From my Child, this one and he tapped with his hand on Al-Hussein ." (Nuaim bin Hammad's Yanabi Al-Mawadda , page 490; Tabarani's Al-Mujam Al-Kabir, Vol. 10, page 166 ; Ibn Hajar Al-Haitami's Al-Sawaiq Al-Muhriqa ala Ahl Al-Rafd wa Al-Dhalal wa Al-Zandaqa, page 249; Abu Nuaim's Sifat (Attribute or Description) of Al-Mahdi )
بكر بن أبي
الله بن الزبير
Aisha (r.a.) said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "It worth wondering ! There are people from my Ummah who will head toward House (Mecca's House of Worship) seeking (with evil intention) a man from Quraish (tribe) who has taken refuge in the House. Once they arrive at Bayda, a Khusuf (landslide) will occur to them..." (Sahih Muslim)
أخرج ( ك ) أيضا (1115) عن كعب قال: ما المهدي إلا من قريش, وما الخلافة إلا فيهم,[ غير أن له أصلا ونسبا في اليمن[
Ka'b said: " The Mahdi will not be (from any tribe) other than from Quraish. The Caliphate is not (from any tribe) other than from Quraish. However, he has an origin (roots) and kinship in Yemen." ( Nuaim bin Hammad's Kitab Al-Fitan, Jalal-uddine AsSuyuti's Al-Urf Al-Wardi fi Akhbar Al-Mahdi, a part of Al-Hawi li Al-Fatawa)
5) His name will be Muhammad and his father's name will be Abdullah. Ibn Masood
reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم
said, "Even if there remains only a day before the World ends, the almighty
Allah will greatly prolong that day to send a man from me (my progeny), from
members of my House (family). His name will be similar to my name and his
father's name similar to my father's name." (Abu Dawud)
6) Abu Saeed Al-Khudri reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said "The Mahdi is from me (my progeny) and will have a broad, clear (of hair) forehead and a prominent nose and will fill the Earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and will reign for seven years." (Abu Dawud).
7) Once Imam Ali رضي الله عنه was asked to describe the Mahdi's. He replied, "He is a well-built, youthful, with average height and a handsome face. His hair reaches his shoulders, and the light of his face is contrasted by the darkness of his hair and beard." (Muhammad Al-Barzanji's book Isha'ah li Ashrat Al-Sa'a)
8) أخرج ابن الجوزي في تاريخه عن ابن عباس قال:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:
ملك الأرض أربعة:
مؤمنان وكافران؛ فالمؤمنان:
ذو القرنين وسليمان، والكافران:
نمرود وبخت نصر، وسيملكها خامس من أهل بيتي.
9) عن أمير المؤمنين اعلي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام، قال: قلت يا رسول الله، أمنا المهدي، أو من غيرنا؟
فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: " بل منا، يختم الله به الدين، كما فتحه بنا
القندوزي ـ ينابيع المودة ـ الجزء [ 3 ] ـ رقم الصفحة 261
الأحاديث المروية عند أهل السنة عن الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم التي قال فيها: المهدي من ولدي
كنز العمال ج٧ ص١٨٦ عن حذيفة : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه
وسلم: (المهدي رجل من ولدي وجهه كالكوكب الدرّي) من مسند الروياني
وفي كتاب العرف
الوردي ص٦٦ قال: أخرج الروياني في مسنده وابو نعيم في (صفة المهدي) عن حذيفة : قال
رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (المهدي رجل من ولدي وجهه كالكوكب
وفي كتاب (اسعاف
الراغبين) المطبوع بهامش (نور الابصار) ص١٢٤ قال: أنّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
قال: (المهدي من ولدي وجهه كالكوكب الدري اللون لون عربي والجسم جسم
اسرائيلي أي طويل، يملأ الارض عدلا كما ملئت جوراً، يرضى لخلافته اهل السماء واهل
وقد اخرج الحديث في (نور الابصار) ص١٥٣ إلى قوله (كما ملئت جوراً) وقال: اخرجه الروياني والطبراني.
وفي كتاب (ينابيع المودة) ص٤٦٩ اخرج ما اخرجه في اسعاف الراغبين ولفظه يساوي لفظه غير انه قال اخرجوه مرفوعاً.
وفي كتاب (عقد
الدرر في اخبار المهدي المنتظر) في الباب الثالث (الحديث ٤٦) عن حذيفة رضي الله
عنه: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (المهدي رجل من ولدي وجهه كالكوكب
الدري اللون لون عربي والجسم جسم اسرائيلي يملأ الارض عدلا كما ملئت جورا، يرضى
بخلافته اهل السماء والطير في الجو يملك عشرين سنة). اخرجه الحافظ ابو نعيم في
(مناقب المهدي) واخرجه الحافظ ابو القاسم الطبراني في معجمه.
( و قد اخرج الحديث ابن الصباغ المالكي في الباب الثاني عشر من (الفصول المهمة) ص٢٧٥-ص٢٧٦ وفيه (المهدي ولدي وجهه كالقمر الدري
وفي كتاب (عقد
الدررفي اخبار المهدي المنتظر) في الباب الأول الحديث (٨) عن حذيفة رضي الله عنه:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: (المهدي رجل من ولدي وجهه كالكوكب
الدري). أخرجه ابو نعيم في صفة المهدي.
واخرجه في (ينابيع المودة) ص٤٦٩ من (اسعاف الراغبين) وفي (ذخائر العقبي) ص١٣٦.
عن عبد الله بن عمر رضي الله
عنه : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
لا تقوم الساعة حتى يخرج المهدي من ولدي ولا يخرج حتى يخرج ستون كذاباً كلهم يقول انا نبي.
لا تقوم الساعة حتى يخرج المهدي من ولدي. ليملأن الارض عدواناً ثم ليخرجن رجل من أهل بيتي يملأها قسطاً وعدلا). اخرجه الحافظ ابو نعيم في صفة المهدي.
عن حذيفة رضي الله
عنه عنه : خطب بنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فذكر لنا بما هو كائن إلى يوم
القيامة ثم قال: (لو لم يبق من الدنيا الا يوم واحد لطول الله عزوجل ذلك اليوم حتى
يبعث رجلا من ولدي اسمه اسمي (قال) فقام سلمان رضي الله عنه فقال: يا رسول
الله من أي ولدك قال: هو من ولدي هذا وضرب بيده على الحسين (بن علي عليه
السلام). اخرجه الحافظ ابو نعيم في صفة المهدي.
اخرج الحديث في (ينابيع المودة) ص٢٢٤ من قوله لو لم يبق من الدنيا إلاّ يوم واحد ...الخ وقال: أخرجه الحافظ أبو العلاء الهمداني في (الأحاديث الأربعين في المهدي رضي الله عنه) وقال: فيه (اسمه كاسمي) وفي (ذخائر العقبي) للمحب الطبري الشافعي ص١٣٦ اخرج الحديث بسنده عن حذيفة ولفظه يساوي لفظ القندوزي في (ينابيع المودة) وعلق عليه.
وقد اخرج الحديث في (ينابيع المودة) ص٤٣٣ وقال: اخرجه الروياني والطبراني وابو نعيم والديلمي في مسنده.
روى ابو الحسن
الربع المالكي عن حذيفة عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أنّه قال: لو لم يبق من
الدنيا إلاّ يوم واحد لبعث الله رجلا من ولدي اسمه اسمي وخلقه خلقي يكنى ابا
عبد الله يبايع له الناس بين الركن والمقام. يرد الله به الدين ويفتح له فتوحاً ولا
يبقى على وجه الأرض إلاّ من يقول لا اله الا الله فقام سلمان فقال: يا رسول الله من
أي ولدك قال: من ولد ابني هذا وضرب بيده إلى الحسين.
اخرج الكنجي في كتاب (البيان) في الباب (١٣) الحديث بسنده عن زر بن حبيش عن حذيفة ولفظه يساوي لفظه وقال: هذا حديث حسن رزقناه عالياً.
عن عبد الله (ابن
عمر رضي الله عنه) : قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: يخرج في آخر الزمان رجل من
ولدي اسمه كاسمي وكنيته كنيتي يملا الارض عدلا كما ملئت جوراً.
The following Hadiths provide more physical description of the Mahdi (Mehdi). However, these Hadiths are weak. They mention that Mahdi's body resembles the bodies of the Israelites:
1) Abu Umamah says that Messenger of Allah صلى
الله عليه وسلم
said: "The people asked: 'O Messenger of Allah
صلى الله عليه
وسلم , who will be the Imam of the people at the
time? ' He said: 'He will be from my progeny and will be forty years of age.
His face will shine like a star and he will have a small black spot on his
right cheek. He will don two Qutwaani cloaks as if he is from the
Israelites. He will rule for 20 years and will conquer the cities of the
Mushrikeen (Polytheists)." (Tabrani)
2) The Mahdi will have wheatish complexion, long straight nose, eyes brows round like bow, big black eyes, very white front two teeth and with a spacing between the teeth ,a small black spot on the right cheek, face glowing like a shining star, a mark on his shoulder like that of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , complexion like the Arabs and body like the Israelites. He will be slow in speech (with a slight stutter) and when he stutters, he will strike his left thigh with his right hand. He will appear at the age of 40. While praying to Allah, he will expand his hands for prayers like birds expanding their wings. He will be wearing Qutwani Cloaks. He will resemble in character Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم , but in appearance (or looks), he will be different. (Muhammad Al-Barzanji's book Isha'ah li Ashrat Al-Sa'a)
5. The Mahdi leads a prayer and Jesus prays behind him
وعن حذيفة بن اليمان، رضي الله عنه قال:
قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "
يلتفت المهدي، وقد نزل عيسى ابن مريم كأنما يقطر من شعره
الماء، فيقول المهدي: تقدم، وصل بالناس.
أخرجه الحافظ أبو نعيم، في مناقب المهدي.
عقد الدرر في أخبار المنتظر للعلامة يوسف الشافعي السلمي بـ10 ص292 برقم 350 / الصواعق المحرقة لابن حجر الهيتمي ص145.
وقد قال ابن حجر العسقلاني نقلاً عن أبي الحسن الخسعي الأبدي:
وأيضاً نقل الألباني هذا المعنى عن السيوطي حيث قال:
وعن أبي سعيد الخدري قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: ((منا الذي يصلي عيسى بن مريم خلفه))
تخريج الحديث وتصحيحه:
الجامع الصغير للسيوطي ج2 ص546 ح8262 / كنز العمال للمتقي الهندي ج14 ص266 ح38673 / السلسلة الصحيحة للألباني ج5 ص371 برقم 2293، وقال عنه: "... فالحديث عندي صحيح ..." / صحيح الجامع الصغير وزيادته للألباني ج2 ص1029 برقم 5920، وقال عنه: "صحيح".
6. The Mahdi's Place of Birth
The narrations about where the Mahdi will be born are weak. Nuaim bin Hammad narrates based on Ali bin Abi Talib (r.a.) that the Mahdi (Mehdi) will be born in Medina. However, Al-Qurtubi in his book Al-Tazirah said that the Mahdi will be born in the Maghreb. Others said in Al-Andalus.
قال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ( المهدي يخرج من قرية تسمي قرعه باليمن ) السيوطي وأخرج أبو نعيم (7), وأبو بكر المقرئ في ((معجمه))(94) عن ابن عمرو قال: قال النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم : (( يخرج المهدي من قرية يقال لها قرعة )) نبوءة اشعياء النبي عليه الصلاة والسلام (يقول الرب أقيموا راية علي جبل أقرع ) سفر اشعياء الإصحاح 13
7. Signs & Events Preceding the Mahdi (Mehdi)
To read about the signs & events that will occur before the Mahdi appears, please click here (These signs & events are very important. We strongly urge you to read them !)
8. The Rise of the Sufyani and the Mahdi (Mehdi)
Abdullah-bin-Masood has reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "The World will not pass away before the Arabs are ruled by a man (referring to the Mahdi) of my family whose name will be the same as mine." (Abu Dawud)
There are several WEAK narrations that seem to indicate that tyrant Muslim leader will emerge before the Mahdi in Syria and rule the Middle East. Some of these narrations refer to this tyrant leader as the Sufyani , meaning a descendant of Abu Sufyan. Some weak narration specify that the Sufyani's name will be Urwa bin Muhammad and his Kuniya (nick name) will be Abu-Utba. Based on our numerical analysis of the Quran & Hadith for our End Times book, we do NOT believe that it is likely that a Sunni Muslim leader will emerge before the Mahdi. However, there might be an evil Shia Leader who may emerge. The Shia consider descendant of Abu Sufyan as their enemies, so the narrations mentioning the Sufyani are most likely part of Shia's false propaganda.
Umm Salamah رضي الله عنها narrated: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: "Disagreement will occur upon the death of a Caliph and a man of the people of Medina will flee to Mecca. Some of the people of Mecca will come to him, bring him out against his will and make him accept their Bay'a (being chosen as a leader) (at a location) between the Rukn (corner of the Ka'ba containing the Black Stone) and the Maqam (Place) of Abraham (located on a side of the Ka'ba). An army from the people of AshSham (Greater Syria) will then be sent against him, but Khusf (land collapse) will happen to them (they will die) in the Baidaa (desert) between Mecca and Medina. When the people see this, the Abdal (pious eminent individuals) of Syria and the Asa'ib (pious individuals) of the people of Iraq will come to him and offer him Bay'a (accept his leadership) between the Rukn and the Maqam. A man from Quraish tribe , whose maternal uncles are from Kalb tribe, will arise and send against them (against the Mahdi & his supporters) an army which they (the Mahdi & his supporters) will overcome. That army will be made up of Kalb tribe. Whoever does not witness the spoils of (this battle with) Kalb tribe will be disappointed (because treasures will be found, according to some narration). He (the Mahdi) will divide (distribute) money (wealth), and will govern the people according to the Sunnah of their Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and establish Islam on Earth. He will remain seven years, then die, and the Muslims will pray over him." (Abu Dawud) Al-Bazar reported a variation of this Hadith attributed to Anas bin Malik who says that the Prophet mentioned that the army which experience the Khusuf comes from Iraq, not AshSham.
Abu Huraira has narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, ''A man will emerge from the depth of Damascus. He will be called Sufyani. Most of those who follow him will be from the tribe of Kalb (or Kulaib). He will kill by ripping the stomachs of women and even kill children. Qais tribe will gather against them, but Sufyani & his followers will them. A man from my family will appear in Haram (in Mecca), the news of this event will reach the Sufyani and he will send forth one of his armies. He (the Mahdi) will defeat them. Then, the Sufyani will march (to attack the Mahdi) with whoever remains with him. When they reach a Baidaa (desert), a Khusf (land collapse) will happen to them. None of them (Sufyani's army) will survive, except one person who will tell about what happened.'' (Imam Al-Haakim)
Please note that Umm Salama's Hadith mentions two different armies sent to
attack the Mahdi. Whereas Abu Huraira's Hadith mentions only one army.
أخرج ( ك ) الداني (596) عن حذيفة قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:
(( تكون وقعة بالزوراء, قالوا يا رسول الله وما الزوراء؟ قال: مدينة بالمشرق بين أنهار يسكنها شرار خلق الله, وجبابرة من أمتي, تقذف بأربعة أصناف من العذاب, بالسيف وخسف وقذف ومسخ ))
وقال صلى الله عليه وسلم : (( إذا خرجت السودان طلبت العرب ينكشفون, حتى يلحقوا ببطن الأرض أو قال: ببطن الأردن فبينما هم كذلك , إذ خرج السفياني في ستين وثلاثمائة راكب , حتى يأتي دمشق, فلا يأتي عليه شهر حتى يبايعه من كلب ثلاثون ألفا, فيبعث جيشا إلى العراق , فيقتل بالزوراء مائة ألف , وينحدرون إلى الكوفة فينهبونها , فعند ذلك تخرج [ دابة ] من المشرق , يقودها رجل من بني تميم , يقال له:شعيب بن صالح , فيستنقذ ما في أيديهم من سبي أهل الكوفة, ويقتلهم, ويخرج جيش آخر من جيوش السفياني إلى المدينة, فينهبونها [ ثلاثة أيام, ثم يسيرون إلى مكة, حتى إذا كانوا بالبيداء بعث الله عز وجل جبريل فيقول: يا جبريل عذبهم , فيضربهم برجله ضربة , فيخسف الله عز وجل بهم فلا يبقى منهم إلا رجلان, فيقدمان على السفياني فيخبرانه خسف الجيش فلا يهوله , ثم إن رجالا من قريش يهربون إلى قسطنطينية , فيبعث السفياني إلى عظيم الروم, أن ابعث إلى بهم في المجامع, قال: فيبعث بهم إليه فيضرب أعناقهم على باب المدينة بدمشق.
قال حذيفة :حتى إنه يطاف بالمرأة في مسجد دمشق في الثوب على مجلس مجلس, حتى تأتي فخذ السفياني فتجلس عليه, وهو في المحراب قاعد, فيقوم رجل من المسلمين فيقول: ويحكم أكفرتم بالله بعد إيمانكم ؟, إن هذا لا يحل, فيقوم فيضرب عنقه في مسجد دمشق, ويقتل كل من شايعه على ذلك, فعند ذلك ينادى من السماء:مناد أيها الناس إن الله عز وجل قد قطع عنكم مدة الجبارين والمنافقين وأشياعهم وأتباعهم, وولاكم خير أمة محمد فالحقوا به بمكة فإنه المهدي, واسمه أحمد بن عبدالله.
قال حذيفة : فقام عمران بن الحصين الخزاعي فقال:يا رسول الله كيف لنا بهذا حتى نعرفه؟ فقال:هو رجل من ولد كنانة من رجال بني إسرائيل,عليه عباءتان قطوانيتان, كأن وجهه الكوكب الدري في اللون, في خده الأيمن خال أسود, [ بين ] أربعين سنة, فيخرج الأبدال من الشام وأشباهـهم, ويخرج إليه النجباء من مصر وعصائب أهل المشرق وأشباهـهم,حتى يأتوا مكة , فيبايع له بين زمزم والمقام, ثم يخرج متوجها إلي الشام, وجبريل على مقدمته, وميكائيل على ساقته, يفرح به أهل السماء و أهل الأرض, والطير والوحوش والحيتان في البحر, وتزيد المياهـ في دولته, وتمد الأنهار, وتضعف الأرض أكلها, وتستخرج الكنوز, فيقدم الشام, فيذبح السفياني تحت الشجرة التي أغصانها إلى بحيرة طبرية, ويقتل كلبا.
قال حذيفة قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: فالخائب من خاب يوم كلب, ولو بعقال.
قال حذيفة : يا رسول الله وكيف يحل قتالهم وهم موحدون؟ فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم : يا حذيفة هم يومئذ على ردة, يزعمون أن الخمر حلال, ولا يصلون , [ ويسير المهدي حتى يأتي دمشق, ومن معه من المسلمين, فيبعث الله عز و وجل عليهم الروم , وهو الخامس من آل هرقل , يقال له: طبارة, وهو صاحب الملاحم , فتصالحونهم سبع سنين , حتى تغزوا أنتم وهم عدوا خلفهم , وتغنمون وتسلمون أنتم وهم جميعا فتنزلون بمرج ذي تلول ], .[ فإذا كان يوم الجمعة من صلاة الغداة وقد أقيمت الصلاة فالتفت المهدي فإذا هو بعيسى بن مريم قد نزل من السماء, في ثوبين كأنما يقطر من رأسه الماء, فقال أبوهريرة إذا أقوم إليه يا رسول الله فأعانقه؟ فقال يا أبا هريرة إن خرجته هذه ليست كخرجته الأولى,تلقى عليه مهابة كمهابة الموت,يبشر أقواما بدرجات من الجنة,فيقول له الإمام: تقدم فصل بالناس, فيقول له عيسى : إنما أقيمت الصلاة لك, فيصلى عيسى خلفه. قال حذيفة وقال رسول الله : قد أفلحت أمة أنا أولها , و عيسى آخرها ... الحديث ] ))
Huzaifa said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said :
"When Sudan (either refers to Sudan as a country, or blacks, such as the Abyssinians, meaning Ethiopians) come after the Arabs, they will be defeated and thrown into the lowest part of the Earth (or pushed back to Jordan). While these circumstances exist, the Sufyani will come with three hundred and sixty men until he reaches Damascus. After a month, he will be followed by thirty thousand from Kalb (tribe). He will send an army to Iraq and kill one hundred thousand in Az-Zawra (possibly refers to Baghdad).
Then, they (Sufyani's army) will go to Kufa (a Shia city in Iraq) and pillage it. When this occurs, a banner will come from the East led by a man from Tamim called Shuayb, the son of Salih, who will obtain the release of the people of Kufa (captured by Sufyani's army) and (Salih & his men) will defeat them (Sufyani's army).
Then, another army of the Sufyani will go to Medina and pillage it for three days and thereafter proceed towards Mecca until these troops find themselves in a desert.
Then, Allah will send (Angel) Gabriel and say to him, 'Chastise them!' So, he (Gabriel) will crush them with his leg once and Allah will cause them to be swallowed up (by the earth). None will remain except two men who will return to The Sufyani to inform him of the swallowing-up of his army, but this will not scare him.
Several men from Quraish (tribe) will escape to Constantinople. The Sufyani will ask the leader of the Romans to send them back to the Sufyani. The Sufyani will slit their throats and the throats of their followers.
At that point, a voice will come from Heaven saying: ' O' people, surely Allah forbids tyrants and their followers for you and (Allah) bestows leadership upon the best of the nation of Muhammad. Join him in Mecca -- he is the Mahdi!' "
Then, Huzaifa asked: "O Messenger of Allah, how shall we identify him (the Mahdi)?"
He صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: "He is a man from my descendants, he looks like the men of the Israelites, upon him are two white cloaks with frayed edges, 'Qutwani' cloaks. His face is like a glittering star, upon his right cheek there is a black mole and he is forty years old.
Al-Abdal (pious individuals) and those seeking the Mahdi like them will come to him (the Mahdi) from Syria. Al-Nujaba (pious individuals) from the dwellers of Egypt will come to him (the Mahdi). Groups of dwellers from the East and those seeking the Mahdi like them will come until they all gather together in Mecca. So, they will pledge their allegiance to him (the Mahdi) between Al-Rukn (corner of the Ka'ba containing the Black Stone) and Al-Maqam (Place) of (Prophet) Abraham عليه السلام (located on a side of the Ka'ba).
Then, he (the Mahdi) will lead (an army) towards Syria, with (angel) Gabriel at the fore front and (angel) Michael in the middle. The dwellers of Heaven and Earth will be joyful because of him. Water will be plentiful in his country (Syria) and the River (Euphrates) will spread and treasures will be found ( gold or treasures of religious significance ) .
When he (the Mahdi) reaches Syria, he will slay the Sufyani under a tree, the branches of which grow in the direction of Lake Tiberias and he will defeat Kalb (tribe). On that Day (battle) of Kalb, disappointed will be whoever does not get some (of the treasures)."
Huzaifa asked: "O Messenger of Allah, صلى الله عليه وسلم , how is it permitted to kill them when they believe in the Oneness (of God)?"
The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: "O Huzaifa, they are at that time apostates, they claim that wine is permitted and do not pray." (Nuaim Ibn Hammad's Kitab Al-Fitan, Tabarani, and Abu Amru Uthman bin Saeed Ad-Dani's Kitab Al-Sunan Al-Waredah fi al-Fitan )
غير الدجال أخوفني عليكم إن يخرج وأنا فيكم فأنا حجيجه دونكم وإن يخرج ولست فيكم فامرؤ حجيج نفسه والله خليفتي على كل مسلم
9. The Devastation of Yathrib
Mu'az ibn Jabal narrated that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said to him: "Omran (visitation) of Bayt Al-Maqdis (House of Holiness) will be (lead to) Halak (devastation) of Yathrib. The Halak (devastation) of Yathrib will be (lead to) the outbreak of the Big Battle (with the Romans). The outbreak of the Big Battle will be (lead to) the conquest of Constantinople. The conquest of Constantinople will be (lead to) the coming-out of Dajjal (Anti-Christ). Then, ... said: This is as true as you (Mu'az ibn Jabal) are here or you are sitting." (Abu Dawud)
Yathrib, historically refers to Medina (in Saudi Arabia), but in this Hadith, based on our numerical analysis, Yathrib may refer to another city. Read The End Times Book for detailed analysis of this Hadith.
10. Roman (European) Invasions & the Conquest of Constantinople & Rome
For detailed information about Roman (European) Invasions & the Conquest of Constantinople & Rome click here
11. Other Events around the Time of the Mahdi
This includes: (a) internal fighting & bloodshed in the Muslim World, (b) Fighting Iran, (c) invasions by the Turks (Russians), (d) fighting the Andalusians, and Abyssinians (Ethiopians & East Africans), (c) Muslims' conquest of India, etc. For detailed information about, click here Other Events around the time of the Mahdi(s)
12. Discoveries of Religious Significance
Some scholars, particularly the Shia, believe the Mahdi (Mehdi) will be able to find Religious relics, such as Ark of the Covenant (containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed) in Antioch (very important city in Early Christianity, currently located in Turkey, but, historically, was part of Syria), Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee in Palestine), or in Rome / Vatican. For more details about Discoveries of Religious Significance, click here.
13. Ahl Al-Kahf (People of the Cave)
The story of these people is mentioned in the Quran in Sura Al-Kahf.
Ibn Marduwayh narrates from Ibn Abbas: "Ahl Al-Kahf (People of the Cave) will be the Mahdi’s helpers (companions)." (Muhammad Al-Barzanji's book Isha'ah li Ashrat Al-Sa'a)
"People of the Cave will be companions of Jesus and they will perform Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) with him." (Mohammad bin Ka'b Al-Qarzi's book Al-Kutub Al-Munazala, and Al-Qurtubi's book Al-Tazkira- Malahim Chapter)
The Shia, particularly, believe that People of the Cave will return and play an important role.
For more information about People of the Cave, click here
14. Blessings at the time of the Mahdi (Mehdi)
Once again, the Quran and Sunnah will govern the people, this time by the
rightly guided Caliph, the Mahdi (Mehdi). Islam will gain an upper hand and will
be firmly established in the land. The oppression, tyranny, and darkness that
prevailed all over the Globe will be replaced with justice, peace and equity.
Due to the booty gained from the various conquests, everyone will have so much
wealth that an eyebrow will not even be raised at somebody else's wealth.
Callers will shout in the street, ''Is anybody in need of anything?'' Nobody
will respond except one person. Abu Saeed Al-Khudri's Hadith narrated that
Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم
said: ''A caller will call 'Who is in need of wealth?' Only one person will
stand (in response to the call and say I am in need of wealth), he will be told
to go to the treasurer and tell him that the Mahdi orders you to give some
wealth. He will be told: 'Gather and take it.' (He will begin to put it in his
lap, when he realized that nobody else has come and he was the only one) he will
regret it and say 'I was the greediest from among the Ummah (Nation) of
Muhammad' . The narrator says, he will return it, but it will not be accepted,
and it will be said to him that we do not accept what we have given." (Musnad
Abu Saeed al-Khudri said I heard that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم say: " A leader will emerge from your leaders. He will distribute more than can ever be counted. A man will come and ask for goods, and he (the leader) will tell him to take what he wants. That man will spread out his shirt and fill it with goods. The Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم spread out a thick shirt he was wearing, showing how that man will be at that time, and then gathered up the corners of that garment and said, this is how that man will collect his goods and carry them away." (Ibn Kathir's book Nihaya fi Fitan & Al-Malahim)
عن أبي سعيد الخدري رضي الله عنه قال
: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم
Abu Saeed al-Khudri said: the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: " At the end of Umma, the Mahdi will appear. Allah will give him water as a relief. Land sprouts plants. He give away money. The cattle will increase in number. The Umma (nation) will become magnificent. He will live for 7 or 8, meaning Hajj seasons (years)." (Al-Hakim's Al-Mustadrak, Al-Albany classified it as Sahih)
15. The Period of the Mahdi's Reign as a Caliph
There are different conflicting narrations regarding the length of the period of the Mahdi's reign as a Caliph.
Umm Salama narrated the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ''... He will remain seven years, then die, and Muslims will pray for him (at his funeral).'' (Abu Dawud)
Abu Saeed Al-Khudri reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said "The Mahdi is from me (my progeny) and will have a broad, clear (of hair) forehead and a prominent nose and will fill the Earth with fairness and justice as it was filled with oppression and injustice, and will reign for seven years." (Abu Dawud) Al-Munawi added to this Hadith "or nine years".
Abu Saeed Al-Khudri narrated: "We were afraid that things might happen, so we asked the Prophet of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم , ... 'In my Ummah (Nation), there will be the Mahdi; he will appear and remain five, seven or nine.' Zayd was one who was not sure. He said, ' We asked, 'What does that refer to?' He (Prophet Mohammad صلى الله عليه وسلم ) replied, 'Years'." (Tirmizi)
There are Hadiths that indicate that when the Mahdi dies, Prophet Jesus will lead his funeral prayer and bury him.
The Shia believe, according to some sayings they attribute to their Imams, that the Mahdi will rule for seven years, but each year will be equivalent to 10 regular years. This means he will rule for what is equivalent to seventy years. However, some Shia believe the Mahdi may rule more than 300 years.
16. The Mahdi has been prophesied in the Bible
(a) The Bible in Genesis 49:10 prophesies the coming of an important person, who could be either Prophet Mohammad (p) or the Mahdi:
The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his. (Genesis 49:10) (Source: New International Version 1984 (Protestant Bible): www.Bible.cc )
The scepter from Judah and the leader from his thigh will not be taken away, until he who will be sent arrives, and he will be the expectation of Gentiles. (Genesis 49:10) (Source: The Sacred Bible (Catholic Bible): www.SacredBible.org )
(b) The Bible, in Daniel 10 and in Daniel 12, prophesies the advent of the Mahdi, referring to him as Michael :
In Daniel 10: 20-21:
20 So he said, "Do you know why I have come to you? Soon I will return to fight against the prince of Persia, and when I go, the prince of Greece will come;
21 but first I will tell you what is written in the Book of Truth. No one supports me against them except Michael, your prince. (Daniel 10: 20-21)
In Daniel 12: 1-11:
1 "At that time, Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise. There will be a time of distress such as has not happened from the beginning of nations until then. But at that time, your people—everyone whose name is found written in the book—will be delivered.
2 Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt.
3 Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever.
4 But you, Daniel, close up and seal the words of the scroll until the time of the end. Many will go here and there to increase knowledge."
5 Then I, Daniel, looked, and there before me stood two others, one on this bank of the river and one on the opposite bank.
6 One of them said to the man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, "How long will it be before these astonishing things are fulfilled?"
7 The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the river, lifted his right hand and his left hand toward heaven, and I heard him swear by him who lives forever, saying, "It will be for a time, times and half a time (a year, two years and half a year). When the power of the holy people has been finally broken, all these things will be completed."
8 I heard, but I did not understand. So I asked, "My lord, what will the outcome of all this be?"
9 He replied, "Go your way, Daniel, because the words are closed up and sealed until the time of the end.
10 Many will be purified, made spotless and refined, but the wicked will continue to be wicked. None of the wicked will understand, but those who are wise will understand.
11 "From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days.
12 Blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1,335 days. (Daniel 12: 1-11)
Furthermore, the following prophecy in Isaiah 19: 16-25 of the Bible seems to correspond very well with the signs preceding the advent of the Mahdi:
(a) Verse 17 talks about Israel attacking Egypt. This could be either a reference to Israel's attack on Egypt in 1967 or an attack that will happen in the future.
(b) Verse 18 mentions that Egyptians will be speaking language of Canaan which indicates that they will speaking a new language that ancient Egyptian did not speak. Canaan is the region that includes Lebanon and Palestine, where people speak Arabic, and previously Aramaic used to be spoken there which is also a Semitic language, very similar to Arabic. So, we sense that this prophecy is talking about events at the end of time.
(c) Heliopolis mentioned in verse 18 is a suburb of today's Cairo.
(d) Verse 19 mentions a sign and a pillar which could be the sign and column of fire or light we discussed in the Signs Preceding the Mahdi.
(e) Verse 20 talks about God sending the Egyptians a saviour from oppression. This saviour could be the Mahdi.
(f) Verse 23 says that there will be a highway from Egypt to Assyria. Assyria includes Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Iraq, and Northern Saudi Arabia. This highway could be the proposed bridge Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt to Ras Hamid in Northern Saudi Arabia is one of signs, mentioned in Shia books, for the advent of the Mahdi.
(c) Isaiah 19: 16-25 :
16In that day shall Egypt be like unto women: and it shall be afraid and fear because of the shaking of the hand of the LORD of hosts, which he shaketh over it.
17And the land of Judah (meaning Israel) will bring terror to the Egyptians; everyone to whom Judah is mentioned will be terrified, because of what the LORD Almighty is planning against them.
18In that day shall five cities in the land of Egypt speak the language of Canaan, and swear to the LORD of hosts; one shall be called, the City of Destruction (some manuscripts of the Bible mention Heliopolis or City of the Sun).
19In that day shall there be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the LORD.
20And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the LORD Almighty in the land of Egypt: for they shall cry unto the LORD because of the oppressors, and he shall send them a Saviour, and a great one, and he shall deliver them.
21And the LORD shall be known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know the LORD in that day, and shall do sacrifice and oblation; yea, they shall vow a vow unto the LORD, and perform it.
22And the LORD shall smite Egypt: he shall smite and heal it: and they shall return even to the LORD, and he shall respond to their pleas and heal them.
23In that day shall there be a highway out of Egypt to Assyria, and the Assyrian shall come into Egypt, and the Egyptian into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve with the Assyrians.
24In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, even a blessing in the midst of the land:
25Whom the LORD of hosts shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hands, and Israel mine inheritance.
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