Bible,Quran & Sc. 1
Bible,Quran & Sc. 2
Bible,Quran & Sc. 3
Bible,Quran & Sc. 4
Bible, The Qur'an and Science
Dr. Maurice Bucaille
Chapter 1: The Old Testament
the author of the Old Testament?
wonders how many readers of the Old Testament, if asked the above question,
would reply by repeating what they had read in the introduction to their
Bible. They might answer that, even though it was written by men inspired by
the Holy Ghost, the author was God.
Sometimes, the author of the Bible's presentation confines himself to
informing his reader of this succinct observation which puts an end to all
further questions. Sometimes he corrects it by warning him that details may
subsequently have been added to the primitive text by men, but that
nonetheless, the litigious character of a passage does not alter the general
"truth' that proceeds from it. This "truth' is stressed very heavily. The
Church Authorities answer for it, being the only body, With the assistance
of the Holy Ghost, able to enlighten the faithful on such points. Since the
Councils held in the Fourth century, it was the Church that issued the list
of Holy Books, ratified by the Councils of Florence (1441), Trent (1546),
and the First Vatican Council (1870), to form what today is known as the
Canon. Just recently, after so many encyclicals, the Second Vatican Council
published a text concerning the Revelation which is extremely important. It
took three years (1962-1966) of strenuous effort to produce. The vast
majority of the Bible's readers who find this highly reassuring information
at the head of a modern edition have been quite satisfied with the
guarantees of authenticity made over past centuries and have hardly thought
it possible to debate them.
refers however to works written by clergymen, not meant for mass
publication, one realizes that the question concerning the authenticity of
the books in the Bible is much more complex than one might suppose a
priori. For example, when one consults the modern publication in
separate installments of the Bible in French translated under the guidance
of the Biblical School of Jerusalem
[ Pub. Cerf, Paris],
the tone appears to be very different. One realizes that the Old Testament,
like the New Testament, raises problems with controversial elements that,
for the most part, the authors of commentaries have not concealed.
find highly precise data in more condensed studies of a very objective
nature, such as Professor Edmond Jacob's study. The Old Testament (L'Ancien
Testament) [ Pub. Presses
Universitaires de France, Paris "Que sais-je?" collection].
This book gives an excellent general view.
people are unaware, and Edmond Jacob points this out, that there were
originally a number of texts and not just one. Around the Third century
B.C., there were at least three forms of the Hebrew text: the text which was
to become the Masoretic text, the text which was used, in part at least, for
the Greek translation, and the Samaritan Pentateuch. In the First century
B.C., there was a tendency towards the establishment of a single text, but
it was not until a century after Christ that the Biblical text was
If we had
had the three forms of the text, comparison would have been possible, and we
could have reached an opinion concerning what the original might have been.
Unfortunately, we do not have the slightest idea. Apart from the Dead Sea
Scrolls (Cave of Qumran) dating from a pre-Christian era near the time of
Jesus, a papyrus of the Ten Commandments of the Second century A.D.
presenting variations from the classical text, and a few fragments from the
Fifth century A.D. (Geniza of Cairo) , the oldest Hebrew text of the Bible
dates from the Ninth century A.D.
Septuagint was probably the first translation in Greek. It dates from the
Third century B.C. and was written by Jews in Alexandria. It Was on this
text that the New Testament was based. It remained authoritative until the
Seventh century A.D. The basic Greek texts in general use in the Christian
world are from the manuscripts catalogued under the title Codex Vaticanus in
the Vatican City and Codex Sinaiticus at the British Museum, London.
They date from the Fourth century A.D.
beginning of the Fifth century A.D., Saint Jerome was able to produce a text
in latin using Hebrew documents. It was later to be called the Vulgate
on account of its universal distribution after the Seventh century A.D.
record, we shall mention the Aramaic version and the Syriac (Peshitta)
version, but these are incomplete.
these versions have enabled specialists to piece together so-called
'middle-of-the-road' texts, a sort of compromise between the different
versions. Multi-lingual collections have also been produced which juxtapose
the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Aramaic and even Arabic versions. This is
the case of the famous Walton Bible (London, 1667). For the sake of
completeness, let us mention that diverging Biblical conceptions are
responsible for the fact that the various Christian churches do not all
accept exactly the same books and have not until now had identical ideas on
translation into the same language. The Ecumenical Translation of the Old
Testament is a work of unification written by numerous Catholic and
Protestant experts now nearing completion
[ Translator's Note: Published
December 1975 by Les Editions du Cerf and Les Bergers et les Mages, Paris]
and should result in a work of synthesis.
human element in the Old Testament is seen to be quite considerable. It is
not difficult to understand why from version to version, and translation to
translation, with all the corrections inevitably resulting, it was possible
for the original text to have been transformed during the course of more
than two thousand years.
ORIGINS OF THE BIBLE
became a collection of books, it was a folk tradition that relied entirely
upon human memory, originally the only means of passing on ideas. This
tradition was sung.
elementary stage, writes E. Jacob, every people sings; in Israel, as
elsewhere, poetry preceded prose. Israel sang long and well; led by
circumstances of his history to the heights of joy and the depths of
despair, taking part with intense feeling in all that happened to it, for
everything in their eyes had a sense, Israel gave its song a wide variety of
expression". They sang for the most diverse reasons and E. Jacob mentions a
number of them to which we find the accompanying songs in the Bible: eating
songs, harvest songs, songs connected with work, like the famous Well Song
(Numbers 21, 17), wedding songs, as in the Song of Songs, and mourning
songs. In the Bible there are numerous songs of war and among these we find
the Song of Deborah (Judges 5, 1-32) exalting Israel's victory desired and
led by Yahweh Himself, (Numbers 10, 35); "And whenever the ark (of alliance)
set out, Moses said, 'Arise, oh Yahweh, and let thy enemies be scattered;
and let them that hate thee nee before thee".
also the Maxims and Proverbs (Book of Proverbs, Proverbs and Maxims of the
Historic Books), words of blessing and curse, and the laws decreed to man by
the Prophets on reception of their Divine mandate.
notes that these words were either passed down from family to family or
channelled through the sanctuaries in the form of an account of the history
of God's chosen people. History quickly turned into fable, as in the Fable
of Jotham (Judges 9, 7-21), where "the trees went forth to anoint a king
over them; and they asked in turn the olive tree, the fig tree, the vine and
the bramble", which allows E. Jacob to note "animated by the need to tell a
good story, the narration was not perturbed by subjects or times whose
history was not well known", from which he concludes:
probable that what the Old Testament narrates about Moses and the patriarchs
only roughly corresponds to the succession of historic facts. The narrators
however, even at the stage of oral transmission, were able to bring into
play such grace and imagination to blend between them highly varied
episodes, that when all is said and done, they were able to present as a
history that was fairly credible to critical thinkers what happened at the
beginning of humanity and the world".
good reason to believe that after the Jewish people settled in Canaan, at
the end of the Thirteenth century B.C., writing was used to preserve and
hand down the tradition. There was not however complete accuracy, even in
what to men seems to demand the greatest durability, i.e. the laws. Among
these, the laws which are supposed to have been written by God's own hand,
the Ten Commandments, were transmitted in the Old Testament in two versions;
Exodus (20,1-21) and Deuteronomy (5, 1-30). They are the same in spirit, but
the variations are obvious. There is also a concern to keep a large written
record of contracts, letters, lists of personalities (Judges, high city
officials, genealogical tables), lists of offerings and plunder. In this
way, archives were created which provided documentation for the later
editing of definitive works resulting in the books we have today. Thus in
each book there is a mixture of different literary genres: it can be left to
the specialists to find the reasons for this odd assortment of documents.
Testament is a disparate whole based upon an initially oral tradition. It is
interesting therefore to compare the process by which it was constituted
with what could happen in another period and another place at the time when
a primitive literature was born.
take, for example, the birth of French literature at the time of the
Frankish Royalty. The same oral tradition presided over the preservation of
important deeds: wars, often in the defense of Christianity, various
sensational events, where heroes distinguished themselves, that were
destined centuries later to inspire court poets, chroniclers and authors of
various 'cycles'. In this way, from the Eleventh century A.D. onwards, these
narrative poems, in which reality is mixed with legend, were to appear and
constitute the first monument in epic poetry. The most famous of all is
the Song of Roland (La Chanson de Roland) a biographical chant about a
feat of arms in which Roland was the commander of Emperor Charlemagne's
rearguard on its way home from an expedition in Spain. The sacrifice of
Roland is not just an episode invented to meet the needs of the story. It
took place on 15th August, 778. In actual fact it was an attack by Basques
living in the mountains. This literary work is not just legend ; it has a
historical basis, but no historian would take it literally.
parallel between the birth of the Bible and a secular literature seems to
correspond exactly with reality. It is in no way meant to relegate the whole
Biblical text as we know it today to the store of mythological collections,
as do so many of those who systematically negate the idea of God. It is
perfectly possible to believe in the reality of the Creation, God's
transmission to Moses of the Ten Commandments, Divine intercession in human
affairs, e.g. at the time of Solomon. This does not stop us, at the same
time, from considering that what has been conveyed to us is the gist of
these facts, and that the detail in the description should be subjected to
rigorous criticism, the reason for this being that the element of human
participation in the transcription of originally oral traditions is so
Books of the Old Testament
Testament is a collection of works of greatly differing length and many
different genres. They were written in several languages over a period of
more than nine hundred years, based on oral traditions. Many of these works
were corrected and completed in accordance with events or special
requirements, often at periods that were very distant from one another.
copious literature probably flowered at the beginning of the Israelite
Monarchy, around the Eleventh century B.C. It was at this period that a body
of scribes appeared among the members of the royal household. They were
cultivated men whose role was not limited to writing. The first incomplete
writings, mentioned in the preceding chapter, may date from this period.
There was a special reason for writing these works down; there were a
certain number of songs (mentioned earlier), the prophetic oracles of Jacob
and Moses, the Ten Commandments and, on a more general level, the
legislative texts which established a religious tradition before the
formation of the law. All these texts constitute fragments scattered here
and there throughout the various collections of the Old Testament.
not until a little later, possibly during the Tenth century B.C., that the
so-called 'Yahvist' [ So
called because God is named Yahweh in this text.]
text of the Pentateuch was written. This text was to form the backbone of
the first five books ascribed to Moses. Later, the so-called 'Elohist'
[ So called because God
is named Elohim in this text.]
text was to be added, and also the so-called 'Sacerdotal'
[ From the preachers in the
Temple at Jerusalem.]
version. The initial Yahvist text deals with the origins of the world up to
the death of Jacob. This text comes from the southern kingdom, Judah.
end of the Ninth century and in the middle of the Eighth century B.C., the
prophetic influence of Elias and Elisha took shape and spread. We have their
books today. This is also the time of the Elohist text of the Pentateuch
which covers a much smaller period than the Yahvist text because it limits
itself to facts relating to Abraham, Jacob and Joseph. The books of Joshua
and Judges date from this time.
Eighth century B.C. saw the appearance of the writer prophets: Amos and
Hosea in Israel, and Michah in Judah.
B.C., the fall of Samaria put an end to the Kingdom of Israel. The Kingdom
of Judah took over its religious heritage. The collection of Proverbs dates
from this period, distinguished in particular by the fusion into a single
book of the Yahvist and Elohist texts of the Pentateuch; in this way the
Torah was constituted. Deuteronomy was written at this time.
second half of the Seventh century B.C., the reign of Josiah coincided with
the appearance of the prophet Jeremiah, but his work did not take definitive
shape until a century later.
the first deportation to Babylon in 598 B.C., there appeared the Books of
Zephaniah, Nahum and Habakkuk. Ezekiel was already prophesying during this
first deportation. The fall of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. marked the beginning of
the second deportation which lasted until 538 B.C.
of Ezekiel, the last great prophet and the prophet of exile, was not
arranged into its present form until after his death by the scribes that
were to become his spiritual inheritors. These same scribes were to resume
Genesis in a third version, the so-called 'Sacerdotal' version, for the
section going from the Creation to the death of Jacob. In this way a third
text was to be inserted into the central fabric of the Yahvist and Elohist
texts of the Torah. We shall see later on, in the books written roughly two
and four centuries earlier, an aspect of the intricacies of this third text.
It was at this time that the Lamentations appeared.
order of Cyrus, the deportation to Babylon came to an end in 538 B.C. The
Jews returned to Palestine and the Temple at Jerusalem was rebuilt. The
prophets' activities began again, resulting in the books of Haggai,
Zechariah, the third book of Isaiah, Malachi, Daniel and Baruch (the last
being in Greek). The period following the deportation is also the period of
the Books of Wisdom: Proverbs was written definitively around 480 B.C., Job
in the middle of the Fifth century B.C., Ecclesiastes or Koheleth dates from
the Third century B.C., as do the Song of Songs, Chronicles I & II, Ezra and
Nehemiah; Ecclesiasticus or Sirah appeared in the Second century B.C.; the
Book of Wisdom and the Book of Maccabees I & II were written one century
before Christ. The Books of Ruth, Esther and Jonah are not easily datable.
The same is true for Tobit and Judith. All these dates are given on the
understanding that there may have been subsequent adaptations, since it was
only circa one century before Christ that form was first given to the
writings of the Old Testament. For many this did not become definitive until
one century after Christ.
Old Testament appears as a literary monument to the Jewish people, from its
origins to the coming of Christianity. The books it consists of were
written, completed and revised between the Tenth and the First centuries
B.C. This is in no way a personal point of view on the history of its
composition. The essential data for this historical survey were taken from
the entry The Bible in the Encyclopedia Universalis
[ Paris, 1974 edition, Vol. a,
pp. 246-263.] by J. P.
Sandroz, a professor at the Dominican Faculties, Saulchoir. To understand
what the Old Testament represents, it is important to retain this
information, correctly established today by highly qualified specialists.
Revelation is mingled in all these writings, but all we possess today is
what men have seen fit to leave us. These men manipulated the texts to
please themselves, according to the circumstances they were in and the
necessities they had to meet.
these objective data are compared with those found in various prefaces to
Bibles destined today for mass publication, one realizes that facts are
presented in them in quite a different way. Fundamental facts concerning the
writing of the books are passed over in silence, ambiguities which mislead
the reader are maintained, facts are minimalised to such an extent that a
false idea of reality is conveyed. A large number of prefaces or
introductions to the Bible misrepresent reality in this way. In the case of
books that were adapted several times (like the Pentateuch), it is said that
certain details may have been added later on. A discussion of an unimportant
passage of a book is introduced, but crucial facts warranting lengthy
expositions are passed over in silence. It is distressing to see such
inaccurate information on the Bible maintained for mass publication.
THE TORAH OR PENTATEUCH
is the Semitic name.
expression, which in English gives us 'Pentateuch', designates a work in
five parts; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. These were
to form the five primary elements of the collection of thirty-nine volumes
that makes up the Old Testament.
group of texts deals with the origins of the world up to the entry of the
Jewish people into Canaan, the land promised to them after their exile in
Egypt, more precisely until the death of Moses. The narration of these facts
serves however as a general framework for a description of the provisions
made for the religious and social life of the Jewish people, hence the name
Law or Torah.
and Christianity for many centuries considered that the author was Moses
himself. Perhaps this affirmation was based on the fact that God said to
Moses (Exodus 17, 14): "Write this (the defeat of Amalek) as a memorial in a
book", or again, talking of the Exodus from Egypt, "Moses wrote down their
starting places" (Numbers 33, 2), and finally "And Moses wrote this law"
(Deuteronomy 31, 9). From the First century B.C. onwards, the theory that
Moses wrote the Pentateuch was upheld; Flavius Josephus and Philo of
Alexandria maintain it.
this theory has been completely abandoned; everybody is in agreement on this
point. The New Testament nevertheless ascribes the authorship to Moses.
Paul, in his Letter to the Romans (10, 5) quoting from Leviticus, affirms
that "Moses writes that the man who practices righteousness which is based
on the law . . ." etc. John, in his Gospel (5,46-47), makes Jesus say the
following: "If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote of me.
But if you do not believe his writings, how will you believe my words?" We
have here an example of editing, because the Greek word that corresponds to
the original (written in Greek) is episteuete, so that the Evangelist
is putting an affirmation into Jesus's mouth that is totally wrong: the
following demonstrates this.
borrowing the elements of this demonstration from Father de Vaux, Head of
the Biblical School of Jerusalem. He prefaced his French translation of
Genesis in 1962 with a General Introduction to the Pentateuch which
contained valuable arguments. These ran contrary to the affirmations of the
Evangelists on the authorship of the work in question. Father de Vaux
reminds us that the "Jewish tradition which was followed by Christ and his
Apostles" was accepted up to the end of the Middle Ages. The only person to
contest this theory was Abenezra in the Twelfth century. It was in the
Sixteenth century that Calstadt noted that Moses could not have written the
account of his own death in Deuteronomy (34, 5-12). The author then quotes
other critics who refuse to ascribe to Moses a part, at least, of the
Pentateuch. It was above all the work of Richard Simon, father of the
Oratory, Critical History of the Old Testament (Histoire critique du
Vieux Testament) 1678, that underlined the chronological difficulties, the
repetitions, the confusion of the stories and stylistic differences in the
Pentateuch. The book caused a scandal. R. Simon's line of argument was
barely followed in history books at the beginning of the Eighteenth century.
At this time, the references to antiquity very often proceeded from what
"Moses had written".
easily imagine how difficult it was to combat a legend strengthened by Jesus
himself who, as we have seen, supported it in the New Testament. It is to
Jean Astruc, Louis XV's doctor, that we owe the decisive argument.
publishing, in 1753, his Conjectures on the original writings which it
appears Moses used to compose the Book of Genesis (Conjectures sur les
Mèmoires originaux dont il parait que Moyse s'est servi pour composer le
livre de la Genèse), he placed the accent on the plurality of sources. He
was probably not the first to have noticed it, but he did however have the
courage to make public an observation of prime importance: two texts, each
denoted by the way in which God was named either Yahweh or Elohim, were
present side by side in Genesis. The latter therefore contained two
juxtaposed texts. Eichorn (1780-1783) made the same discovery for the other
four books; then Ilgen (1798) noticed that one of the texts isolated by
Astruc, the one where God is named Elohim, was itself divided into two. The
Pentateuch literally fell apart.
Nineteenth century saw an even more minute search into the sources. In 1854,
four sources were recognised. They were called the Yahvist version, the
Elohist version, Deuteronomy, and the Sacerdotal version. It was even
possible to date them:
The Yahvist version was placed in the
Ninth century B.C. (written in Judah)
The Elohist version was probably a little
more recent (written in Israel)
Deuteronomy was from the Eighth century
B.C. for some (E. Jacob) , and from the time of Josiah for others (Father
The Sacerdotal version came from the
period of exile or after the exile: Sixth century B.C.
It can be
seen that the arrangement of the text of the Pentateuch spans at least three
problem is, however, even more complex. In 1941, A. Lods singled out three
sources in the Yahvist version, four in the Elohist version, six in
Deuteronomy, nine in the Sacerdotal version, "not including the additions
spread out among eight different authors" writes Father de Vaux. More
recently, it has been thought that "many of the constitutions or laws
contained in the Pentateuch had parallels outside the Bible going back much
further than the dates ascribed to the documents themselves" and that "many
of the stories of the Pentateuch presupposed a background that was different
from-and older than-the one from which these documents were supposed to have
come". This leads on to "an interest in the formation of traditions". The
problem then appears so complicated that nobody knows where he is anymore.
multiplicity of sources brings with it numerous disagreements and
repetitions. Father de Vaux gives examples of this overlapping of traditions
in the case of the Flood, the kidnapping of Joseph, his adventures in Egypt,
disagreement of names relating to the same character, differing descriptions
of important events.
Pentateuch is shown to be formed from various traditions brought together
more or less skillfully by its authors. The latter sometimes juxtaposed
their compilations and sometimes adapted the stories for the sake of
synthesis. They allowed improbabilities and disagreements to appear in the
texts, however, which have led modern man to the objective study of the
As far as
textual criticism is concerned, the Pentateuch provides what is probably the
most obvious example of adaptations made by the hand of man. These were made
at different times in the history of the Jewish people, taken from oral
traditions and texts handed down from preceding generations. It was begun in
the Tenth or Ninth century B.C. with the Yahvist tradition which took the
story from its very beginnings. The latter sketches Israel's own particular
destiny to "fit it back into God's Grand Design for humanity" (Father de
Vaux). It was concluded in the Sixth century B.C. with the Sacerdotal
tradition that is meticulous in its precise mention of dates and
genealogies. [ We shall
see in the next chapter, when confronted with modern scientific data, the
extent of the narrative errors committed by authors of the Sacerdotal
version on the subject of the antiquity of man on Earth, his situation in
time and the course of the Creation. They are obviously errors arising from
manipulation of the texts.]
Father de Vaux writes that "The few stories this tradition has of its own
bear witness to legal preoccupations: Sabbatical rest at the completion of
the Creation, the alliance with Noah, the alliance with Abraham and the
circumcision, the purchase of the Cave of Makpela that gave the Patriarchs
land in Canaan". We must bear in mind that the Sacerdotal tradition dates
from the time of the deportation to Babylon and the return to Palestine
starting in 538 B.C. There is therefore a mixture of religious and purely
Genesis alone, the division of the Book into three sources has been firmly
established: Father de Vaux in the commentary to his translation lists for
each source the passages in the present text of Genesis that rely on them.
On the evidence of these data it is possible to pinpoint the contribution
made by the various sources to any one of the chapters. For example, in the
case of the Creation, the Flood and the period that goes from the Flood to
Abraham, occupying as it does the first eleven chapters of Genesis, we can
see alternating in the Biblical text a section of the Yahvist and a section
of the Sacerdotal texts. The Elohist text is not present in the first eleven
chapters. The overlapping of Yahvist and Sacerdotal contributions is here
quite clear. For the Creation and up to Noah (first five chapter's), the
arrangement is simple: a Yahvist passage alternates with a Sacerdotal
passage from beginning to end of the narration. For the Flood and especially
chapters 7 and 8 moreover, the cutting of the text according to its source
is narrowed down to very short passages and even to a single sentence. In
the space of little more than a hundred lines of English text, the text
changes seventeen times. It is from this that the improbabilities and
contradictions arise when we read the present-day text.
(see Table on page 15 for schematic
distribution of sources)
THE HISTORICAL BOOKS
books we enter into the history of the Jewish people, from the time they
came to the Promised Land (which is most likely to have been at the end of
the Thirteenth century B.C.) to the deportation to Babylon in the Sixth
stress is laid upon what one might call the 'national event' which is
presented as the fulfillment of Divine word. In the narration however,
historical accuracy has rather been brushed aside: a work such as the Book
of Joshua complies first and foremost with theological intentions. With this
in mind, E. Jacob underlines the obvious contradiction between archaeology
and the texts in the case of the supposed destruction of Jericho and Ay.
of Judges is centered on the defense of the chosen people against
surrounding enemies and on the support given to them by God. The Book was
adapted several times, as Father A. Lefèvre notes with great objectivity in
his Preamble to the Crampon Bible. the various prefaces in the text and the
appendices bear witness to this. The story of Ruth is attached to the
narrations contained in Judges.
TABLE OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE YAHVIST AND
SACERDOTAL TEXTS IN CHAPTERS 1 TO 11 in GENESIS)
figure indicates the chapter.
The second figure in brackets indicates the number of phrases, sometimes
divided into two parts indicated by the letters a and b.
Y indicates Yahvist text S indicates Sacerdotal text
The first line of the table indicates: from Chapter 1, phrase 1 to Chapter
2, phrase 4a, the text published in present day Bibles is the Sacerdotal
simpler illustration can there be of the way men have manipulated the
of Samuel and the two Books of Kings are above all biographical collections
concerning Samuel, Saul, David, and Solomon. Their historic worth is the
subject of debate. From this point of view E. Jacob finds numerous errors in
it, because there are sometimes two and even three versions of the same
event. The prophets Elias, Elisha and Isaiah also figure here, mixing
elements of history and legend. For other commentators, such as Father A.
Lefèvre, "the historical value of these books is fundamental."
Chronicles I & II, the Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah have a single
author, called 'the Chronicler', writing in the Fourth century B.C. He
resumes the whole history of the Creation up to this period, although his
genealogical tables only go up to David. In actual fact, he is using above
all the Book of Samuel and the Book of Kings, "mechanically copying them out
without regard to the inconsistencies" (E. Jacob), but he nevertheless adds
precise facts that have been confirmed by archaeology. In these works care
is taken to adapt history to the needs of theology. E. Jacob notes that the
author "sometimes writes history according to theology". "To explain the
fact that King Manasseh, who was a sacrilegious persecutor, had a long and
prosperous reign, he postulates a conversion of the King during a stay in
Assyria (Chronicles II, 33/11) although there is no mention of this in any
Biblical or non-Biblical source". The Book of Ezra and the Book of Nehemiah
have been severely criticised because they are full of obscure points, and
because the period they deal with (the Fourth century B.C.) is itself not
very well known, there being few non-Biblical documents from it.
of Tobit, Judith and Esther are classed among the Historical Books. In them
very big liberties are taken with history. proper names are changed,
characters and events are invented, all for the best of religious reasons.
They are in fact stories designed to serve a moral end, pepll)ered with
historical improbabilities and inaccuracies.
of Maccabees are of quite a different order. They provide a version of
events that took place in the Second century B.C. which is as exact a record
of the history of this period as may be found. It is for this reason that
they constitute accounts of great value.
collection of books under the heading 'historical' is therefore highly
disparate. History is treated in both a scientific and a whimsical fashion.
THE PROPHETIC BOOKS
this heading we find the preachings of various prophets who in the Old
Testament have been classed separately from the first great prophets such as
Moses, Samuel, Elias and Elisha, whose teachings are referred to in other
prophetic books cover the period from the Eighth to the Second century B.C.
Eighth century B.C., there were the books of Amos, Hosea, Isaiah and Michah.
The first of these is famous for his condemnation of social injustice, the
second for his religious corruption which leads him to bodily suffering (for
being forced to marry a sacred harlot of a pagan cult), like God suffering
for the degradation of His people but still granting them His love. Isaiah
is a figure of political history. he is consulted by kings and dominates
events; he is the prophet of grandeur. In addition to his personal works,
his oracles are published by his disciples right up until the Third century
B.C.: protests against iniquities, fear of God's judgement, proclamations of
liberation at the time of exile and later on the return of the Jews to
Palestine. It is certain that in the case of the second and third Isaiah,
the prophetic intention is paralleled by political considerations that are
as clear as daylight. The preaching of Michah, a contemporary of Isaiah,
follows the same general ideas.
Seventh century B.C., Zephaniah, Jeremiah, Nahum and Habakkuk distinguished
themselves by their preachings. Jeremiah became a martyr. His oracles were
collected by Baruch who is also perhaps the author of Lamentations.
period of exile in Babylon at the beginning of the Sixth century B.C. gave
birth to intense prophetic activity. Ezekiel figures importantly as the
consoler of his brothers, inspiring hope among them. His visions are famous.
The Book of Obadiah deals with the misery of a conquered Jerusalem.
exile, which came to an end in 538 B.C., prophetic activity resumed with
Haggai and Zechariah who urged the reconstruction of the Temple. When it was
completed, writings going under the name of Malachi appeared. They contain
various oracles of a spiritual nature.
wonders why the Book of Jonah is included in the prophetic books when the
Old Testament does not give it any real text to speak of. Jonah is a story
from which one principle fact emerges: the necessary submission to Divine
was written in three languages (Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek). According to
Christian commentators, it is a , disconcerting' Apocalypse from an
historical point of view. It is probably a work from the Maccabaean period,
Second century B.C. Its author wished to maintain the faith of his
countrymen, at the time of the 'abomination of desolation', by convincing
them that the moment of deliverance was at hand. (E. Jacob)
THE BOOKS OF POETRY AND WISDOM
form collections of unquestionable literary unity. Foremost among them are
the Psalms, the greatest monument to Hebrew poetry. A large number were
composed by David and the others by priests and levites. Their themes are
praises, supplications and meditations, and they served a liturgical
of Job, the book of wisdom and piety par excellence, probably dates
from 400-500 B.C.
author of 'Lamentations' on the fall of Jerusalem at the beginning of the
Sixth century B.C. may well be Jeremiah.
once again mention the Song of Songs, allegorical chants mostly about Divine
love, the Book of Proverbs, a collection of the words of Solomon and other
wise men of the court, and Ecclesiastes or Koheleth, where earthly happiness
and wisdom are debated.
therefore, a collection of works with highly disparate contents written over
at least seven centuries, using extremely varied sources before being
amalgamated inside a single work.
this collection able, over the centuries, to constitute an inseparable whole
and-with a few variations according to community-become the book containing
the Judeo-Christian Revelation? This book was called in Greek the 'canon'
because of the idea of intangibility it conveys.
amalgam does not date from the Christian period, but from Judaism itself,
probably with a primary stage in the Seventh century B.C. before later books
were added to those already accepted. It is to be noted however that the
first five books, forming the Torah or Pentateuch, have always been given
pride of place. Once the proclamations of the prophets (the prediction of a
chastisement commensurate with misdemeanour) had been fulfilled, there was
no difficulty in adding their texts to the books that had already been
admitted. The same was true for the assurances of hope given by these
prophets. By the Second century B.C., the 'Canon' of the prophets had been
books, e.g. Psalms, on account of their liturgical function, were integrated
along with further writings, such as Lamentations, the Book of Wisdom and
the Book of Job.
Christianity, which was initially Judeo-Christianity, has been carefully
studied-as we shall see later on-by modern authors, such as Cardinal
Daniélou. Before it was transformed under Paul's influence, Christianity
accepted the heritage of the Old Testament without difficulty. The authors
of the Gospels adhered very strictly to the latter, but whereas a 'purge'
has been made of the Gospels by ruling out the 'Apocrypha', the same
selection has not been deemed necessary for the Old Testament. Everything,
or nearly everything, has been accepted.
have dared dispute any aspects of this disparate amalgam before the end of
the Middle Ages-in the West at least? The answer is nobody, or almost
nobody. From the end of the Middle Ages up to the beginning of modern times,
one or two critics began to appear; but, as we have already seen, the Church
Authorities have always succeeded in having their own way. Nowadays, there
is without doubt a genuine body of textual criticism, but even if
ecclesiastic specialists have devoted many of their efforts to examining a
multitude of detailed points, they have preferred not to go too deeply into
what they euphemistically call difficulties'. They hardly seem disposed to
study them in the light of modern knowledge. They may well establish
parallels with history-principally when history and Biblical narration
appear to be in agreement-but so far they have not committed themselves to
be a frank and thorough comparison with scientific ideas. They realize that
this would lead people to contest notions about the truth of Judeo-Christian
Scriptures, which have so far remained undisputed.
Old Testament and Science Findings
the subjects dealt within the Old Testament, and likewise the Gospels, give
rise to a confrontation with the data of modern knowledge. When an
incompatibility does occur between the Biblical text and science, however,
it is on extremely important points.
have already seen in the preceding chapter, historical errors were found in
the Bible and we have quoted several of these pinpointed by Jewish and
Christian experts in exegesis. The latter have naturally had a tendency to
minimize the importance of such errors. They find it quite natural for a
sacred author to present historical fact in accordance with theology and to
write history to suit certain needs. We shall see further on, in the case of
the Gospel according to Matthew, the same liberties taken with reality and
the same commentaries aimed at making admissible as reality what is in
contradiction to it. A logical and objective mind cannot be content with
logical angle, it is possible to single out a large number of contradictions
and improbabilities. The existence of different sources that might have been
used in the writing of a description may be at the origin of two different
presentations of the same fact. This is not all; different adaptations,
later additions to the text itself, like the commentaries added a
posteriori, then included in the text later on when a new copy was
made-these are perfectly recognized by specialists in textual criticism and
very frankly underlined by some of them. In the case of the Pentateuch
alone, for example, Father de Vaux in the General Introduction preceding his
translation of Genesis (pages 13 and 14), has drawn attention to numerous
disagreements. We shall not quote them here since we shall be quoting
several of them later on in this study. The general impression one gains is
that one must not follow the text to the letter.
Here is a
very typical example:
Genesis (6, 3), God decides just before the Flood henceforth to limit man's
lifespan to one hundred and twenty years, "... his days shall be a hundred
and twenty years". Further on however, we note in Genesis (11, 10-32) that
the ten descendants of Noah had lifespans that range from 148 to 600 years
(see table in this chapter showing Noah's descendants down to Abraham). The
contradiction between these two passages is quite obvious. The explanation
is elementary. The first passage (Genesis 6, 3) is a Yahvist text, probably
dating as we have already seen from the Tenth century B.C. The second
passage in Genesis (11, 10-32) is a much more recent text (Sixth century
B.C.) from the Sacerdotal version. This version is at the origin of these
genealogies, which are as precise in their information on lifespans as they
are improbable when taken en masse.
It is in
Genesis that we find the most evident incompatibilities with modern science.
These concern three essential points:
the Creation of the world and its stages;
the date of the Creation of the world and
the date of man's appearance on earth;
the description of the Flood.
CREATION OF THE WORLD
de Vaux points out, Genesis "starts with two juxtaposed descriptions of the
Creation". When examining them from the point of view of their compatibility
with modern scientific data, we must look at each one separately.
First Description of the Creation
description occupies the first chapter and the very first verses of the
second chapter. It is a masterpiece of inaccuracy from a scientific point of
view. It must be examined one paragraph at a time. The text reproduced here
is from the Revised Standard Version of the Bible.
[ Pub. w. M. Collins & Sons for
the British and Foreign Bible Society, 1952.]
1, verses 1 & 2:
beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form
and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God
was moving over the face of the waters."
quite possible to admit that before the Creation of the Earth, what was to
become the Universe as we know it was covered in darkness. To mention the
existence of water at this period is however quite simply pure imagination.
We shall see in the third part of this book how there is every indication
that at the initial stage of the formation of the universe a gaseous mass
existed. It is an error to place water in it.
said, 'Let there be light', and there was light. And God saw that the light
was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. God called the
light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there
was morning, one day."
circulating in the Universe is the result of complex reactions in the stars.
We shall come back to them in the third part of this work. At this stage in
the Creation, however, according to the Bible, the stars were not yet
formed. The "lights' of the firmament are not mentioned in Genesis until
verse 14, when they were created on the Fourth day, "to separate the day
from the night", "to give light upon earth"; all of which is accurate. It is
illogical, however, to mention the result (light) on the first day, when the
cause of this light was created three days later. The fact that the
existence of evening and morning is placed on the first day is moreover,
purely imaginary; the existence of evening and morning as elements of a
single day is only conceivable after the creation of the earth and its
rotation under the light of its own star, the Sun!
"And God said, "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let
it separate the waters from the waters.' And God made the firmament and
separated the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which
were above the firmament. And it was so. And God called the firmament
Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day."
of the waters is continued here with their separation into two layers by a
firmament that in the description of the Flood allows the waters above to
pass through and flow onto the earth. This image of the division of the
waters into two masses is scientifically unacceptable.
"And God said, "Let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into
one place, and let the dry land appear.' And it was so. God called the dry
land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And
God saw that it was good. And God said, "Let the earth put forth vegetation,
plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit in which is their seed,
each according to its kind upon the earth.' And it was so. The earth brought
forth vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their own kinds, and
trees bearing fruit in which is their seed, each according to its kind. And
God saw that it was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a
that continents emerged at the period in the earth's history, when it was
still covered with water, is quite acceptable scientifically. What is
totally untenable is that a highly organized vegetable kingdom with
reproduction by seed could have appeared before the existence of the sun (in
Genesis it does not appear until the fourth day), and likewise the
establishment of alternating nights and days.
14 to 19:
"And God said, 'Let there be lights in the firmaments of the heavens to
separate the day from night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and
for days and years, and let them be lights in the firmament of the heavens
to give light upon the earth.' And it was so. And God made the two great
lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the
night; he made the stars also. And God set them in the firmament of the
heavens to give light upon earth, to rule over. the day and over the night,
and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good.
And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day."
Biblical author's description is acceptable. The only criticism one could
level at this passage is the position it occupies in the description as a
whole. Earth and Moon emanated, as we know, from their original star, the
Sun. To place the creation of the Sun and Moon after the creation of the
Earth is contrary to the most firmly established ideas on the formation of
the elements of the Solar System.
20 to 30:
"And God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and
let birds fly above the earth across the firmament of the heavens.' So God
created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with
which the waters swarm, according to their kinds, and every winged bird
according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And God blessed them
saying, "Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let
birds multiply on the earth.' And there was evening and there was morning, a
passage contains assertions which are unacceptable.
According to Genesis, the animal kingdom began with the appearance of
creatures of the sea and winged birds. The Biblical description informs us
that it was not until the next day-as we shall see in the following
verses-that the earth itself was populated by animals.
certain that the origins of life came from the sea, but this question will
not be dealt with until the third part of this book. From the sea, the earth
was colonized, as it were, by the animal kingdom. It is from animals living
on the surface of the earth, and in particular from one species of reptile
which lived in the Second era, that it is thought the birds originated.
Numerous biological characteristics common to both species make this
deduction possible. The beasts of the earth are not however mentioned until
the sixth day in Genesis; after the appearance of the birds. This order of
appearance, beasts of the earth after birds, is not therefore acceptable.
24 to 31:
"And God said, "Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to
their kinds: cattle and creeping things and beasts of the earth according to
their kinds.' And it was so. And God made the beasts of the earth according
to their kinds and the cattle according to their kinds, and everything that
creeps upon the ground according to its kind. And God saw that it was good."
said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have
dominion (sic) over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and
over the cattle, and over all the earth and over every creeping thing that
creeps upon the earth".
created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and
female he created them."
blessed them, and God said to them, 'Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the
earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the
birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.' And
God said, "Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed which is upon
the face of the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have
them for food. And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the
air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the
breath of life, I have given every green plant for food." And it was so. And
God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there
was evening and there was morning, a sixth day."
the description of the culmination of the Creation. The author lists all the
living creatures not mentioned before and describes the various kinds of
food for man and beast.
have seen, the error was to place the appearance of beasts of the earth
after that of the birds. Man's appearance is however correctly situated
after the other species of living things.
description of the Creation finishes in the first three verses of Chapter 2:
heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host (sic) of them. And on
the seventh day God finished his work which he had done, and he rested on
the seventh day from all his work which he had done. So God blessed the
seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all his work
which he had done in creation;
the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created."
description of the seventh day calls for some comment.
the meaning of certain words. The text is taken from the Revised Standard
Version of the Bible mentioned above. The word 'host' signifies here, in all
probability, the multitude of beings created. As for the expression 'he
rested', it is a manner of translating the Hebrew word 'shabbath', from
which the Jewish day for rest is derived, hence the expression in English 'sabbath'.
quite clear that the 'rest' that God is said to have taken after his six
days' work is a legend. There is nevertheless an explanation for this. We
must bear in mind that the description of the creation examined here is
taken from the so-called Sacerdotal version, written by priests and scribes
who were the spiritual successors of Ezekiel, the prophet of the exile to
Babylon writing in the Sixth century B.C. We have already seen how the
priests took the Yahvist and Elohist versions of Genesis and remodelled them
after their own fashion in accordance with their own preoccupations. Father
de Vaux has written that the 'legalist' character of these writings was very
essential. An outline of this has already been given above.
the Yahvist text of the Creation, written several centuries before the
Sacerdotal text, makes no mention of God's sabbath, taken after the fatigue
of a week's labor, the authors of the Sacerdotal text bring it into their
description. They divide the latter into separate days, with the very
precise indication of the days of the week. They build it around the
sabbatic day of rest which they have to justify to the faithful by pointing
out that God was the first to respect it. Subsequent to this practical
necessity, the description that follows has an apparently logical religious
order, but in fact scientific data permit us to qualify the latter as being
of a whimsical nature.
that successive phases of the Creation, as seen by the Sacerdotal authors in
their desire to incite people to religious observation, could have been
compressed into the space of one week is one that cannot be defended from a
scientific point of view. Today we are perfectly aware that the formation of
the Universe and the Earth took place in stages that lasted for very long
periods. (In the third part of the present work, we shall examine this
question when we come to look at the Qur'anic data concerning the Creation).
Even if the description came to a close on the evening of the sixth day,
without mentioning the seventh day, the 'sabbath' when God is said to have
rested, and even if, as in the Qur'anic description, we were permitted to
think that they were in fact undefined periods rather than actual days, the
Sacerdotal description would still not be any more acceptable. The
succession of episodes it contains is an absolute contradiction with
elementary scientific knowledge.
It may be
seen therefore that the Sacerdotal description of the Creation stands out as
an imaginative and ingenious fabrication. Its purpose was quite different
from that of making the truth known.
second description of the Creation in Genesis follows immediately upon the
first without comment or transitional passage. It does not provoke the same
remember that this description is roughly three centuries older and is very
short. It allows more space to the creation of man and earthly paradise than
to the creation of the Earth and Heavens. It mentions this very briefly
(Chapter2, 4b-7): "In the day that Yahweh God made the earth and the
heavens, when no plant of the field was yet in the earth and no herb of the
field had yet sprung up-for Yahweh God had not caused it to rain upon the
earth, and there was no man to till the ground;
flood went up from earth and watered the whole face of the ground-then
Yahweh God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his
nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being."
the Yahvist text that appears in the text of present day Bibles. The
Sacerdotal text was added to it later on, but one may ask if it was
originally so brief. Nobody is in a position to say whether the Yahvist text
has not, in the course of time, been pared down. We do not know if the few
lines we possess represent all that the oldest Biblical text of the Creation
had to say.
Yahvist description does not mention the actual formation of the Earth or
the Heavens. It makes it clear that when God created man, there was no
vegetation on Earth (it had not yet rained), even though the waters of the
Earth had covered its surface. The sequel to the text confirms this: God
planted a garden at the same time as man was created. The vegetable kingdom
therefore appears on Earth at the same time as man. This is scientifically
inaccurate; man did not appear on Earth until a long time after vegetation
had been growing on it. We do not know how many hundreds of millions of
years separate the two events.
the only criticism that one can level at the Yahvist text. The fact that it
does not place the creation of man in time in relation to the formation of
the world and the earth, unlike the Sacerdotal text, which places them in
the same week, frees it from the serious objections raised against the
DATE OF THE WORLD'S CREATION AND THE DATE OF MAN'S APPEARANCE ON EARTH
Jewish calendar, which follows the data contained in the Old Testament,
places the dates of the above very precisely. The second half of the
Christian year 1975 corresponds to the beginning of the 5, 736th year of the
creation of the world. The creation of man followed several days later, so
that he has the same numerical age, counted in years, as in the Jewish
probably a correction to be made on account of the fact that time was
originally calculated in lunar years, while the calendar used in the West is
based on solar years. This correction would have to be made if one wanted to
be absolutely exact, but as it represents only 3%, it is of very little
consequence. To simplify our calculations, it is easier to disregard it.
What matters here is the order of magnitude. It is therefore of little
importance if, over a thousand years, our calculations are thirty years out.
We are nearer the truth in following this Hebraic estimate of the creation
of the world if we say that it happened roughly thirty-seven centuries
modern science tell us? It would be difficult to reply to the question
concerning the formation of the Universe. All we can provide figures for is
the era in time when the solar system was formed. It is possible to arrive
at a reasonable approximation of this. The time between it and the present
is estimated at four and a half billion years. We can therefore measure the
margin separating the firmly established reality we know today and the data
taken from the Old Testament. We shall expand on this in the third part of
the present work. These facts emerge from a close scrutiny of the Biblical
text. Genesis provides very precise information on the time that elapsed
between Adam and Abraham. For the period from the time of Abraham to the
beginnings of Christianity, the information provided is insufficient. It
must be supported by other sources.
1. From Adam to Abraham
provides extremely precise genealogical data in Chapters 4, 5, 11, 21 and
25. They concern all of Abraham's ancestors in direct line back to Adam.
They give the length of time each person lived, the father's age at the
birth of the son and thus make it easily possible to ascertain the dates of
birth and death of each ancestor in relation to the creation of Adam, as the
data used in this table come from the Sacerdotal text of Genesis, the only
Biblical text that provides information of this kind. It may be deduced,
according to the Bible, that Abraham was born 1,948 years after Adam.
date of birth after creation of Adam
length of life
date of death
2. From Abraham to The Beginnings Of Christianity
does not provide any numerical information on this period that might lead to
such precise estimates as those found in Genesis on Abraham's ancestors. We
must look to other sources to estimate the time separating Abraham from
Jesus. At present, allowing for a slight margin of error, the time of
Abraham is situated at roughly eighteen centuries before Jesus. Combined
with information in Genesis on the interval separating Abraham and Adam,
this would place Adam at roughly thirty-eight centuries before Jesus. This
estimate is undeniably wrong: the origins of this inaccuracy arise from the
mistakes in the Bible on the Adam-Abraham period. The Jewish tradition still
founds its calendar on this. Nowadays, we can challenge the traditional
defenders of Biblical truth with the incompatibility between the whimsical
estimates of Jewish priests living in the Sixth century B.C. and modern
data. For centuries, the events of antiquity relating to Jesus were situated
in time according to information based on these estimates.
modern times, editions of the Bible frequently provided the reader with a
preamble explaining the historical sequence of events that had come to pass
between the creation of the world and the time when the books were edited.
The figures vary slightly according to the time. For example, the Clementine
Vulgate, 1621, gave this information, although it did place Abraham a little
earlier and the Creation at roughly the 40th century B.C. Walton's polyglot
Bible, produced in the 17th century, in addition to Biblical texts in
several languages, gave the reader tables similar to the one shown here for
Abraham's ancestors. Almost all the estimates coincide with the figures
given here. With the arrival of modern times, editors were no longer able to
maintain such whimsical chronologies without going against scientific
discovery that placed the Creation at a much earlier date. They were content
to abolish these tables and preambles, but they avoided warning the reader
that the Biblical texts on which these chronologies were based had become
obsolete and could no longer be considered to express the truth. They
preferred to draw a modest veil over them, and invent set-phrases of cunning
dialectics that would make acceptable the text as it had formerly been,
without any subtractions from it.
why the genealogies contained in the Sacerdotal text of the Bible are still
honoured, even though in the Twentieth century one cannot reasonably
continue to count time on the basis of such fiction.
scientific data do not allow us to establish the date of man's appearance on
earth beyond a certain limit. We may be certain that man, with the capacity
for action and intelligent thought that distinguishes him from beings that
appear to be anatomically similar to him, existed on Earth after a certain
estimable date. Nobody however can say at what exact date he appeared. What
we can say today is that remains have been found of a humanity capable of
human thought and action whose age may be calculated in tens of thousands of
approximate dating refers to the prehistoric human species, the most
recently discovered being the Cro-Magnon Man. There have of course been many
other discoveries all over the world of remains that appear to be human.
These relate to less highly evolved species, and their age could be
somewhere in the hundreds of thousands of years. But were they genuine men?
the answer may be, scientific data are sufficiently precise concerning the
prehistoric species like the Cro-Magnon Man, to be able to place them much
further back than the epoch in which Genesis places the first men. There is
therefore an obvious incompatibility between what we can derive from the
numerical data in Genesis about the date of man's appearance on Earth and
the firmly established facts of modern scientific knowledge.
6, 7 and 8 are devoted to the description of the Flood. In actual fact,
there are two descriptions; they have not been placed side by side, but are
distributed all the way through. Passages are interwoven to give the
appearance of a coherent succession of varying episodes. In these three
chapters there are, in reality, blatant contradictions; here again the
explanation lies in the existence of two quite distinct sources: the Yahvist
and Sacerdotal versions.
been shown earlier that they formed a disparate amalgam; each original text
has been broken down into paragraphs or phrases, elements of one source
alternating with the other, so that in the course of the complete
description, we go from one to another seventeen times in roughly one
hundred lines of English text.
a whole, the story goes as follows:
Man's corruption had become widespread, so God decided to annihilate him
along with all the other living creatures. He warned Noah and told him to
construct the Ark into which he was to take his wife, his three sons and
their wives, along with other living creatures. The two sources differ for
the latter. one passage (Sacerdotal) says that Noah was to take one pair of
each species; then in the passage that follows (Yahvist) it is stated that
God ordered him to take seven males and seven females from each of the
so-called 'pure' animal species, and a single pair from the 'impure'
species. Further on, however, it is stated that Noah actually took one pair
of each animal. Specialists, such as Father de Vaux, state that the passage
in question is from an adaptation of the Yahvist description.
is given as the agent of the Flood in one (Yahvist) passage, but in another
(Sacerdotal), the Flood is given a double cause: rainwater and the waters of
was submerged right up to and above the mountain peaks. All life perished.
After one year, when the waters had receded, Noah emerged from the Ark that
had come to rest on Mount Ararat.
add that the Flood lasted differing lengths of time according to the source
used: forty days for the Yahvist version and one hundred and fifty in the
Yahvist version does not tell us when the event took place in Noah's life,
but the Sacerdotal text tells us that he was six hundred years old. The
latter also provides information in its genealogies that situates him in
relation to Adam and Abraham. If we calculate according to the information
contained in Genesis, Noah was born 1,056 years after Adam (see table of
Abraham's Genealogy) and the Flood therefore took place 1,656 years after
the creation of Adam. In relation to Abraham, Genesis places the Flood 292
years before the birth of this Patriarch.
to Genesis, the Flood affected the whole of the human race and all living
creatures created by God on the face of the Earth were destroyed. Humanity
was then reconstituted by Noah's three sons and their wives so that when
Abraham was born roughly three centuries later, he found a humanity that Was
already re-formed into separate communities. How could this reconstruction
have taken place in such a short time? This simple observation deprives the
narration of all verisimilitude.
Furthermore, historical data show its incompatibility with modern knowledge.
Abraham is placed in the period 1800-1850 B.C., and if the Flood took place,
as Genesis suggests in its genealogies, roughly three centuries before
Abraham, we would have to place him somewhere in the Twenty-first to
Twenty-second century B.C. Modern historical knowledge confirms that at this
period, civilizations had sprung up in several parts of the world; for their
remains have been left to posterity.
case of Egypt for example, the remains correspond to the period preceding
the Middle Kingdom (2,100 B.C.) at roughly the date of the First
Intermediate Period before the Eleventh Dynasty. In Babylonia it is the
Third Dynasty at Ur. We know for certain that there was no break in these
civilizations, so that there could have been no destruction affecting the
whole of humanity, as it appears in the Bible.
therefore consider that these three Biblical narrations provide man with an
account of facts that correspond to the truth. We are obliged to admit that,
objectively speaking, the texts which have come down to us do not represent
the expression of reality. We may ask ourselves whether it is possible for
God to have revealed anything other than the truth. It is difficult to
entertain the idea that God taught to man ideas that were not only
fictitious, but contradictory. We naturally arrive therefore at the
hypothesis that distortions occurred that were made by man or that arose
from traditions passed down from one generation to another by word of mouth,
or from the texts of these traditions once they were written down. When one
knows that a work such as Genesis was adapted at least twice over a period
of not less than three centuries, it is hardly surprising to find
improbabilities or descriptions that are incompatible with reality. This is
because the progress made in human knowledge has enabled us to know, if not
everything, enough at least about certain events to be able to judge the
degree of compatibility between our knowledge and the ancient descriptions
of them. There is nothing more logical than to maintain this interpretation
of Biblical errors which only implicates man himself. It is a great pity
that the majority of commentators, both Jewish and Christian, do not hold
with it. The arguments they use nevertheless deserve careful attention.
Position Of Christian Authors With Regard To Scientific Error
In The Biblical Texts
struck by the diverse nature of Christian commentators' reactions to the
existence of these accumulated errors, improbabilities and contradictions.
Certain commentators acknowledge some of them and do not hesitate in their
work to tackle thorny problems. Others pass lightly over unacceptable
statements and insist on defending the text word for word. The latter try to
convince people by apologetic declarations, heavily reinforced by arguments
which are often unexpected, in the hope that what is logically unacceptable
will be forgotten.
Introduction to his translation of Genesis, Father de Vaux acknowledges the
existence of critical arguments and even expands upon their cogency.
Nevertheless, for him the objective reconstitution of past events has little
interest. As he writes in his notes, the fact that the Bible resumes "the
memory of one or two disastrous floods of the valleys of the Tigris and
Euphrates, enlarged by tradition until they took on the dimensions of a
universal cataclysm" is neither here nor there; "the essential thing is,
however, that the sacred author has infused into this memory eternal
teachings on the justice and mercy of God toward the malice of man and the
salvation of the righteous."
way justification is found for the transformation of a popular legend into
an event of divine proportions-and it is as such that it is thought fit to
present the legend to men's faith-following the principle that an author has
made use of it to illustrate religious teachings. An apologetic position of
this kind justifies all the liberties taken in the composition of writings
which are supposed to be sacred and to contain the word of God. If one
acknowledges such human interference in what is divine, all the human
manipulations of the Biblical texts will be accounted for. If there are
theological intentions, all manipulations become legitimate; so that those
of the 'Sacerdotal' authors of the Sixth century are justified, including
their legalist preoccupations that turned into the whimsical descriptions we
have already seen.
number of Christian commentators have found it more ingenious to explain
errors, improbabilities and contradictions in Biblical descriptions by using
the excuse that the Biblical authors were expressing ideas in accordance
with the social factors of a different culture or mentality. From this arose
the definition of respective 'literary genres' which was introduced into the
subtle dialectics of commentators, so that it accounts for all difficulties.
Any contradictions there are between two texts are then explained by the
difference in the way each author expressed ideas in his own particular
'literary genre'. This argument is not, of course, acknowledged by everybody
because it lacks gravity. It has not entirely fallen into disuse today
however, and we shall see in the New Testament its extravagant use as an
attempt to explain blatant contradictions in the Gospels.
way of making acceptable what would be rejected by logic when applied to a
litigious text, is to surround the text in question with apologetical
considerations. The reader's attention is distracted from the crucial
problem of the truth of the text itself and deflected towards other
Daniélou's reflections on the Flood follow this mode of expression. They
appear in the review Living God (Dieu Vivant)
[ No. 38, 1974, pp. 95-112)]
under the title: 'Flood, Baptism, Judgment', (Deluge, Baptème, Judgment )
where he writes "The oldest tradition of the Church has seen in the theology
of the Flood an image of Christ and the Church". It is "an episode of great
significance" . . . "a judgment striking the whole human race." Having
quoted from Origin in his Homilies on Ezekiel, he talks of '"the
shipwreck of the entire universe saved in the Ark", Cardinal Daniélou dwells
upon the value of the number eight "expressing the number of people that
were saved in the Ark (Noah and his wife, his three sons and their wives)".
He turns to his own use Justin's writings in his Dialogue. "They
represent the symbol of the eighth day when Christ rose from the dead" and
"Noah, the first born of a new creation, is an image of Christ who was to do
in reality what Noah had prefigured." He continues the comparison between
Noah on the one hand, who was saved by the ark made of wood and the water
that made it float ("water of the Flood from which a new humanity was
born"), and on the other, the cross made of wood. He stresses the value of
this symbolism and concludes by underlining the "spiritual and doctrinal
wealth of the sacrament of the Flood" (sic).
much that one could say about such apologetical comparisons. We should
always remember that they are commentaries on an event that it is not
possible to defend as reality, either on a universal scale or in terms of
the time in which the Bible places it. With a commentary such as Cardinal
Daniélou's we are back in the Middle Ages, where the text had to be accepted
as it was and any discussion, other than conformist, was off the point.
nevertheless reassuring to find that prior to that age of imposed
obscurantism, highly logical attitudes were adopted. One might mention those
of Saint Augustine which proceed from his thought, that was singularly
advanced for the age he lived in. At the time of the Fathers of the Church,
there must have been problems of textual criticism because Saint Augustine
raises them in his letter No. 82. The most typical of them is the following
solely to those books of Scripture which are called 'canonic' that I have
learned to grant such attention and respect that I firmly believe that their
authors have made no errors in writing them. When I encounter in these books
a statement which seems to contradict reality, I am in no doubt that either
the text (of my copy) is faulty, or that the translator has not been
faithful to the original, or that my understanding is deficient."
inconceivable to Saint Augustine that a sacred text might contain an error.
Saint Augustine defined very clearly the dogma of infallibility when,
confronted with a passage that seemed to contradict the truth, he thought of
looking for its cause, without excluding the hypothesis of a human fault.
This is the attitude of a believer with a critical outlook. In Saint
Augustine's day, there was no possibility of a confrontation between the
Biblical text and science. An open-mindedness akin to his would today
eliminate a lot of the difficulties raised by the confrontation of certain
Biblical texts with scientific knowledge.
Present-day specialists, on the contrary, go to great trouble to defend the
Biblical text from any accusation of error. In his introduction to Genesis,
Father de Vaux explains the reasons compelling him to defend the text at all
costs, even if, quite obviously, it is historically or scientifically
unacceptable. He asks us not to view Biblical history "according to the
rules of historical study observed by people today", as if the existence of
several different ways of writing history was possible. History, when it is
told in an inaccurate fashion, (as anyone will admit), becomes a historical
novel. Here however, it does not have to comply with the standards
established by our conceptions. The Biblical commentator rejects any
verification of Biblical descriptions through geology, paleontology or
pre-historical data. "The Bible is not answerable to any of these
disciplines, and were one to confront it with the data obtained from these
sciences, it would only lead to an unreal opposition or an artificial
[Introduction to Genesis, page 35.]
One might point out that these reflections are made on what, in Genesis, is
in no way in harmony with modern scientific data-in this case the first
eleven chapters. When however, in the present day, a few descriptions have
been perfectly verified, in this case certain episodes from the time of the
patriarchs, the author does not fail to support the truth of the Bible with
modern knowledge. "The doubt cast upon these descriptions should yield to
the favorable witness that history and eastern archaeology bear them."
[Introduction to Genesis,
page 34.] In other
words. if science is useful in confirming the Biblical description, it is
invoked, but if it invalidates the latter, reference to it is not permitted.
reconcile the irreconcilable, i.e. the theory of the truth of the Bible with
the inaccurate nature of certain facts reported in the descriptions in the
Old Testament, modern theologians have applied their efforts to a revision
of the classical concepts of truth. It lies outside the scope of this book
to give a detailed expose of the subtle ideas that are developed at length
in works dealing with the truth of the Bible; such as O. Loretz's work
(1972) What is the Truth of the Bible? (Quelle est la Vérité de la
Bible?) [ Pub. Le
Centurion, Paris]. This
judgment concerning science will have to suffice:
author remarks that the Second Vatican Council "has avoided providing rules
to distinguish between error and truth in the Bible. Basic considerations
show that this is impossible, because the Church cannot determine the truth
or otherwise of scientific methods in such a way as to decide in principle
and on a general level the question of the truth of the Scriptures".
obvious that the Church is not in a position to make a pronouncement on the
value of scientific 'method' as a means of access to knowledge. The point
here is quite different. It is not a question of theories, but of firmly
established facts. In our day and age, it is not necessary to be highly
learned to know that the world was not created thirty-seven or thirty-eight
centuries ago. We know that man did not appear then and that the Biblical
genealogies on which this estimate is based have been proven wrong beyond
any shadow of a doubt. The author quoted here must be aware of this. His
statements on science are only aimed at side-stepping the issue so that he
does not have to deal with it the way he ought to.
reminder of all these different attitudes adopted by Christian authors when
confronted with the scientific errors of Biblical texts is a good
illustration of the uneasiness they engender. It recalls the impossibility
of defining a logical position other than by recognizing their human origins
and the impossibility of acknowledging that they form part of a Revelation.
uneasiness prevalent in Christian circles concerning the Revelation became
clear at the Second Vatican Council (19621965) where it took no less than
five drafts before there was any agreement on the final text, after three
years of discussions. It was only then that "this painful situation
threatening to engulf the Council" came to an end, to use His Grace Weber's
expression in his introduction to the Conciliar Document No. 4 on the
Revelation [ Pub. Le
Centurion, 1966, Paris].
sentences in this document concerning the Old Testament (chap IV, page 53)
describe the imperfections and obsolescence of certain texts in a way that
cannot be contested:
view of the human situation prevailing before Christ's foundation of
salvation, the Books of the Old Testament enable everybody to know
who is God and who is man, and also the way in which God, in his justice and
mercy, behaves towards men. These books, even though they contain
material which is imperfect and obsolete, nevertheless bear witness to truly
no better statement than the use of the adjectives 'imperfect' and
'obsolete' applied to certain texts, to indicate that the latter are open to
criticism and might even be abandoned; the principle is very clearly
forms part of a general declaration which was definitively ratified by 2,344
votes to 6; nevertheless, one might question this almost total unanimity. In
actual fact, in the commentaries of the official document signed by His
Grace Weber, there is one phrase in particular which obviously corrects the
solemn affirmation of the council on the obsolescence of certain texts:
'"Certain books of the Jewish Bible have a temporary application and have
something imperfect in them."
'Obsolete', the expression used in the official declaration, is hardly a
synonym for 'temporary application', to use the commentator's phrase. As for
the epithet 'Jewish' which the latter curiously adds, it suggests that the
conciliar text only criticized the version in Hebrew. This is not at all the
case. It is indeed the Christian Old Testament alone that, at the Council,
was the object of a judgment concerning the imperfection and obsolescence of
Biblical Scriptures must be examined without being embellished artificially
with qualities one would like them to have. They must be seen objectively as
they are. This implies not only a knowledge of the texts, but also of their
history. The latter makes it possible to form an idea of the circumstances
which brought about textual adaptations over the centuries, the slow
formation of the collection that we have today, with its numerous
subtractions and additions.
makes it quite possible to believe that different versions of the same
description can be found in the Old Testament, as well as contradictions,
historical errors, improbabilities and incompatibilities with firmly
established scientific data. They are quite natural in human works of a very
great age. How could one fail to find them in the books written in the same
conditions in which the Biblical text was composed?
At a time
when it was not yet possible to ask scientific questions, and one could only
decide on improbabilities or contradictions, a man of good sense, such as
Saint Augustine, considered that God could not teach man things that did not
correspond to reality. He therefore put forward the principle that it was
not possible for an affirmation contrary to the truth to be of divine
origin, and was prepared to exclude from all the sacred texts anything that
appeared to him to merit exclusion on these grounds.
a time when the incompatibility of certain passages of the Bible with modern
knowledge has been realized, the same attitude has not been followed. This
refusal has been so insistent that a whole literature has sprung up, aimed
at justifying the fact that, in the face of all opposition, texts have been
retained in the Bible that have no reason to be there.
Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) has greatly reduced this uncompromising
attitude by introducing reservations about the "Books of the Old Testament"
which "contain material that is imperfect and obsolete". One wonders if this
will remain a pious wish or if it will be followed by a change in attitude
towards material which, in the Twentieth century, is no longer acceptable in
the books of the Bible. In actual fact, save for any human manipulation, the
latter were destined to be the "witness of true teachings coming from God".