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Clear View of End 1
Clear View of End 2
Clear View of End 3

 

 

 

A Clear View:

of what has been narrated

regarding the Fitan and the Malahim at the End Of Time

 

 

By

 

Muhammad At-Tayyib ibn Gary [Abu 'Abdillah al-Maliki]

 

Note: The author of this book, Mr. Muhammad At-Tayyib ibn Gary, is NOT associated with Discovering Islam. The views expressed by the author in this book are his own views and do not reflect the views of Discovering Islam.

 

       Part 2 of the Book

 

Chapter 10:

The Mahdi

 

The description of the Mahdi

The Mahdi is a khalifah who will rule this Ummah towards the end of time, and at whose hands Allah ['azza wa-jall] will cause the fitan to come to an end. He will be from the household of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], from the descendents of Fatimah through her son al-Hasan [radhiyallahu 'anhuma]. His name will be like the name of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], that is Muhammad or Ahmad, and the name of his father like the name of his father, that is 'Abdullah. He will have a high forehead and a prominent nose. He will resemble the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] in his behaviour but not in his appearance. He will hand out wealth until everyone's needs are met, and during his time there will be abundant rain and crops. He will rule for seven, eight or nine years, and he will fill the earth with justice as it had been filled with tyranny.

Ahmad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Mahdi is from us, the Ahl al-Bayt. Allah will rectify him in one night."

And he also narrated from Ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]:

"The world will not pass away until the Arabs are ruled by a man from my household, whose name is like my name."

And he also narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"I bring you good tidings of the Mahdi, a man from Quraysh, from my descendents, who will be sent among my Ummah at a time of conflict between men and earthquakes. Then he will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it had been filled with tyranny and oppression. The inhabitants of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him, and he will distribute wealth "sihahan"."

So a man said to him: "What is "sihahan"?" He said: "Equitably between men." Then he said:

"And Allah will fill the hearts of the Ummah of Muhammad with contentment. His justice will cover them all, until he will order an announcer to call out: "Who has any need of me?" And no one will come except for one man, so he will say: "Go to the treasurer and he will give you what you need." So he will go to him and say: "I have been sent by the Mahdi to you for you to give me some wealth." So he will say: "Take!" So he will take until he cannot carry it all, so he will cast off some of it until it is enough for him to carry, then he will go out with it and regret it, saying: "I was the greediest of the Ummah of Muhammad. All of them were called to this wealth and they all left it except me!" So he will return it to him, but he will say: "We do not take back anything that we have given." So he will remain like that for six, seven, eight or nine years, and then there will be no good in living after him."

And Abu Dawud narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Mahdi is from me, high of forehead with a prominent nose. He will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it had been filled with tyranny and oppression. He will rule for seven years."

 

And he also narrated from Umm Salamah [radhiyallahu 'anha] that she heard the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"The Mahdi is from my descendents, from the children of Fatimah."

 

And he also narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"If but a single day remained for this world, Allah would prolong that day until He would send in it a man from my household, whose name is like my name, and whose father's name is like my father's name, and he will fill the earth with equity and justice, as it had been filled with tyranny and oppression."

 

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he looked at his son al-Hasan [radhiyallahu 'anhu] and said:

"This son of mine is a chief [sayyid], as the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] called him, and from his loins will come a man with the same name as your Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], who resembles him in his behaviour but not in his appearance."

Then he mentioned an account and added: "He will fill the earth with justice."

 

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"I said: "O Messenger of Allah, is the Mahdi from us, the family of Muhammad? Or from other than us?"

He said: "No, rather he is from us. Allah will complete the religion through him, as He began it through us. Through us, they will be saved from fitnah, as these have been saved from shirk. And through us, Allah will unite their hearts after the enmity of fitnah, as He united the hearts of these after the enmity of shirk. And through us, they will become after the enmity of fitnah brothers, as these have become after the enmity of shirk brothers in their religion."

 

And he also narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "He will emigrate to Bayt al-Maqdis. He will have a thick beard, dark eyelids, shining teeth, with a mole on his face. He will have a high forehead, and on his shoulder will be the mark of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam].

He will come out with the banner of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], made from a folded, black rectangular cloth, which will not have been unfurled since the passing away of the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], and which will not be unfurled until the coming of the Mahdi. Allah will support him with three thousand angels, striking the faces and backs of those who oppose them. And he will be between thirty and forty."

 

And he also narrated from Abut-Tufayl [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] described the Mahdi and mentioned that he will have an impediment in his speech, and that he will strike his left thigh with his right hand when his speech becomes difficult.

 

And he also narrated from 'A'ishah [radhiyallahu 'anha], from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:  "He is a man from my descendents, who will fight according to my Sunnah, as I fought according to the Revelation."

 

And Abu Nu'aym narrated from Hudhayfah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Mahdi is a man from my descendents; his face is like a shining star."

 

What will occur during the time of the Mahdi

 

The Mahdi will appear in the Hijaz during the fitnah of the Sufyani. Before the Mahdi, black banners will come from Khurasan in the East to prepare the way for him.

The Mahdi will flee from al-Madinah to Makkah, where he will be recognized by a group of people who will have come looking for him. They will offer him their bay'ah, but he will refuse it. At that time, he will not be aware that it is he who is the Mahdi. The situation will be so desperate that they will threaten to kill him if he refuses them, so he will reluctantly accept their bay'ah, which will be given to him by a number of people between three hundred and thirteen and three hundred and fifteen in Makkah, in the Haram between the Rukn and the Maqam.

The Sufyani will send an army to the Hijaz against the Mahdi, but it will be swallowed up at al-Bayda' between Makkah and al-Madinah. This will be the sign that proves to all people that the Mahdi has come. So the Abdal from Sham will join him, along with the best of the people of 'Iraq and the noble people of Egypt.

Then, the Mahdi will come out of Makkah with his army and go forward to Sham. There will be a battle between the Mahdi and his companions on one side, and the Sufyani and his allies from the tribe of Kalb on the other. The companions of the Mahdi will be victorious, and they will win a great amount of war-booty. According to some weak athar, the cause of this battle will be that the Sufyani will have previously given bay'ah to the Mahdi and then broken it. So the Mahdi will fight him and his allies for betraying him and violating their bay'ah.

 

Muslim narrated from 'A'ishah [radhiyallahu 'anha] that she said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] moved during his sleep. We said: "O Messenger of Allah, you did something during your sleep that you have not done before."

So he said: "It is an amazing thing that a group of people from my Ummah will head towards the House [i.e. the Ka'bah] in pursuit of a man from Quraysh who will have taken refuge in the House. Then, while they are at al-Bayda', they will be swallowed up by the earth."

We said: "O Messenger of Allah, there will be many people on the road." So he said: "Yes, among them will be the one who knows what he is doing, the one who is forced, and the wayfarer. All of them will be destroyed at once, even though they came for different reasons, and Allah [ta'ala] will resurrect them according to their intentions."

 

And Abu Dawud narrated from Umm Salamah [radhiyallahu 'anha] from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be conflict with the death of a khalifah. Then a man from the people of al-Madinah will come out, fleeing to Makkah. A group of men from the people of Makkah will come to him and bring him out by force, and give the bay'ah to him between the Rukn and the Maqam. An army will be sent against him from Sham, but they will be swallowed up by the earth al-Bayda' between Makkah and al-Madinah. So when the people see that, the Abdal of Sham and the best of the people of 'Iraq will come to him, and give him the bay'ah between the Rukn and the Maqam.

Then a man from Quraysh and his maternal relatives from Kalb will come and send an army against them, and they [i.e. the Mahdi's companions] will be victorious over them. That will be the battle of Kalb, and what a loss for the one who did not witness the spoils of Kalb! So he [i.e. the Mahdi] will distribute the wealth, and he will rule the people according to the Sunnah of their Prophet, and Islam will be established in the land. He will remain for seven years, then he will die and the Muslims will pray over him."

Abu Dawud said: "Some of them narrated from Hisham "nine years", and some of them said "seven years"."

 

And Muslim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] from the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"There will be at the end of my Ummah a khalifah who will give out wealth in heaps without counting it."

 

 

And al-Hakim narrated from 'Amr ibn Shu'ayb from his father, from his grandfather, that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"In Zul-Qi'dah, the tribes will form groups. In that year, the people performing the Hajj will be looted, and the battle of Mina will take place. Many people will be killed and much bloodshed will occur, until the blood flows over Jamrat al-'Aqabah, and until their leader flees and they come to him between the Rukn and the Maqam, where they will give bay'ah to him, but he will be unwilling. It will be said to him: "If you refuse, we will cut off your head." So a number equal to that of the people of Badr will give bay'ah to him. The inhabitants of the heavens and the earth will be pleased with him."

 

 

Chapter 11:

The one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray:

 is he the Mahdi, or someone else?

 

It is widely believed that the Mahdi who will be given the bay'ah in the Haram is the one in whose time the Malhamah will occur, and behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis­salam] will pray. However, this cannot be firmly proven, and every narration that has been used to prove this is either authentic but unclear, or clear but inauthentic.

From the authentic narrations that they have used for proof are the following:

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"How will you be, when 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend amongst you and your imam will be from you?"

 

And he also narrated from Jabir [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will always remain a group from my Ummah, fighting upon the way of Truth, victorious until the Day of Resurrection. 'Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary) will descend and their amir will say: "Come and lead us in the prayer." So he will say: "No, for you have been made leaders of each other, Allah's honour to this Ummah."

 

And Ibn Majah narrated in the long hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu 'anhu]:

"So Umm Shurayk bint Abil-'Akr said: "O Messenger of Allah, where will the Arabs be on that day?" He said: "They will be, on that day, very few. Most of them will be in Bayt al-Maqdis, and their imam will be a righteous man. So when their imam steps forward to pray the Subh prayer, 'Isa (Jesus) ibn (son of) Maryam (Mary) will descend at dawn. So, this man (Imam) steps backwards so that 'Isa ibn Maryam can lead the people in the prayer. Then, 'Isa will place his hand between his shoulders and say: "Step forward and pray, for it (the prayer) was begun for you (to lead)." So their imam will lead them in the prayer."

 

And Abu Nu'aym narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"From us is he behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam will pray."

 

These ahadith prove that the man behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray will be the imam of the Muslims, a righteous man, and from the descendents of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]. However, no clear indication is given that he is the Mahdi mentioned in the other ahadith.

Perhaps the strongest proof that they have is the following hadith: Abu Nu'aym narrated from Abu Sa'id [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"'Isa ibn Maryam will descend, and their amir, the Mahdi, will say: "Come, lead us in the prayer." So he will say: "Indeed, some of you are umara' over others, an honour for this Ummah."

However, his saying: "their amir the Mahdi" [amiruhum al-mahdi] may also be understood in the sense of a description of their amir, in that he will be one of the rightly-guided khulafa' of this Ummah, as in the context of the hadith: "You must follow my Sunnah, and the Sunnah of the rightly-guided khulafa' [al-khulafa' ar-rashidin al­mahdiyyin] after me" narrated in the Sunan.

When we look into all of the authentic ahadith regarding the Mahdi, despite the detailed descriptions given of events and places – the Mahdi's fleeing from al-Madinah to Makkah, the bay'ah in the Haram, the army that will be swallowed up by the earth, the black banners, the Abdal of Sham and the groups of the people of 'Iraq coming to join him, the battle of Kalb, his handing out wealth in abundance, his ruling for seven, eight or nine years, his death and the Muslims praying over him – despite all of these details of the account of the Mahdi from his appearance until his death, we do not find in the same ahadith any mention at all of the Malhamah, the conquest of Constantinople, or the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] and his praying behind the Mahdi. One would expect that such major and critical events, if they indeed were to occur during the time of the Mahdi, would be given more detail than other matters of lesser consequence, and Allah knows better.

Additionally, the texts make it quite clear that during the time of the Mahdi there will be abundant rain and crops, and that people will be living in prosperity. This is inconsistent with what has come regarding the state of the world in the years before the Dajjal.

 

Ibn Majah narrated in the long hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu 'anhu]:

"And before the Dajjal, there will be three years of hardship, during which the people will be afflicted by severe hunger. Allah [ta'ala] will order the sky in the first year to withhold a third of its rain, and He will order the earth to withhold a third of its crops. Then He will order the sky in the second year to withhold two thirds of its rain, and He will order the earth to withhold two thirds of its crops. Then He will order the sky in the third year to withhold all of its rain so that not a drop falls, and He will order the earth to withhold all of its crops so that not a green thing grows. No cloven-hoofed creature will remain alive except for what Allah [ta'ala] wills."

So it was said: "How will the people live at that time?" He said: "By declaring Allah's oneness [at-tahlil], magnifying Him [at-takbir], glorifying Him [at-tasbih] and praising Him [at-tahmid]. That will fulfill the same function as food for them."

 

 

The ahadith inform us that the Dajjal will come out after the Malhamah and before the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam], and that his time on the earth will last for a year and some months. If the Mahdi is the one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis­salam] will pray, then according to the hadith of Abu Umamah, this would mean that much of the second half of his rule will be a time of hardship and famine, followed by the actual trial of the Dajjal itself, all of which is highly inconsistent with what we have already mentioned regarding the abundant rains and crops that will be during the time of the Mahdi.

During the time of the Mahdi, Islam will be strong and well-established. As we have already mentioned, the khilafah upon the way of Prophethood will be revived during the rule of the Mahdi. In contrast, the Dajjal will appear when the people have turned away from the religion and followed their desires.

 

Ahmad narrated from Jabir ibn 'Abdillah [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Dajjal will appear at a time when religion is treated lightly and knowledge is turned away from."

All of this indicates that there will be a long period between the time of the Mahdi and the time during which the Malhamah, the coming of the Dajjal, and the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will occur. This is supported by the following hadith:

Abu Nu'aym narrated from Ibn 'Abbas [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"That Ummah will not perish which I am at its beginning, 'Isa (Jesus) at its end, and the Mahdi in its middle."

If the Mahdi were the one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will pray, he [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] would have mentioned the Mahdi at the end of the Ummah together with 'Isa, and not in the middle.

It is also supported by what has been narrated from a group of the Salaf, as we will see in the next chapter, if Allah wills.

 

Chapter 12:

What has been narrated regarding what will occur after the Mahdi

 

The settling of the Khilafah in Bayt al-Maqdis

 

Abu Dawud narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Hawalah al-Azdi [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] placed his hand over my head and said:

"O Ibn Hawalah! When you see that the Khilafah (Caliphate) has settled (has its seat or capital) in the Holy Land (Palestine), then the earthquakes, tribulations and great events will have drawn near. The Hour, on that day, will be closer to the people than my hand is to your head."

 

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Yunus ibn Maysurah al-Jiblani that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"This matter will be in al-Madinah, then in Sham, then in the Jazirah, then in 'Iraq, then in al-Madinah, then in Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem). And when it comes to Bayt al-Maqdis, then it will be in its homeland. And it will never go away from a people and afterwards return to them."

 

The Trials following the time of the Mahdi

 

The following athar are all from Kitab al-Fitan by Nu'aym ibn Hammad, one of the hafidh imams and the teacher of Imam al-Bukhari. Al-Imam al-Hafidh Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuti included them in his book al-'Arf al-Wardi fi Akhbar al-Mahdi [The Rose-Scented Perfume: On the Reports of the Mahdi].

All of them are weak, and none of their chains of narration is traced back to the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], or even any of the Companions [radhiyallahu 'anhum]; rather they are all from the words of the Tabi'un and their followers. They also apparently contain a number of problematic contradictions regarding their details. Therefore, I have included them for information purposes only, and I generally have not commented on them unless they are supported by more authentic evidences.

The main reason that I have mentioned them here is to show that the question of the Mahdi being the one who will fight in the Malhamah, and his being the one behind whom 'Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary) ['alayhis-salam] will pray, was by no means unanimously agreed upon by the people of knowledge. Anyhow, the proper approach towards narrations such as these is to neither completely affirm them, nor to completely deny them.

 

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"The Mahdi will die a normal death. Then, the people will be ruled after him by a man from his household who has both good and evil in him, but whose evil is more than his good. He will make the people angry, and call them to division after their unity. He will remain a short while, for a man from his household will rise up against him and kill him. After him, the people will fight each other fiercely, and the one who killed him will remain a short while and then die a normal death. Then, they will be ruled by a man from Mudhar, from the East. He will make the people commit kufr, and cause them to go out of their religion. He will fight the people of the Yemen fiercely between the two rivers, but Allah will defeat him and those who are with him."

And he also narrated from az-Zuhri that he said:

"The Mahdi will die a normal death, then after him, the people will fall into fitnah. A man from Banu Makhzum will come to them, be given the bay'ah, and he will remain for some time. Then, he will withhold peoples' livelihoods, and will find no-one daring to object. Then, he will withhold their pensions, and will again find no-one daring to object.

He will settle in Bayt al-Maqdis (Jerusalem), and he and his companions will be very immoral and disreputable. Their women will walk in sandals decorated with gold and in garments that do not cover them, and no-one will dare object to it.

He will order the expulsion of the people of the Yemen: Qudha'ah, Mudhhaj, Hamdan, Himyar, al-Azd, Ghassan, and everyone else who is said to be from the Yemen. He will drive them out until they settle in the woods of Palestine, where groups from Judays, Lakhm, Judham, and the people from those mountains will bring them food and drink, and provide relief for them, as Yusuf was a means of relieving his brothers.

Then, a caller from the sky, neither human nor jinn, will announce: "Give the bay'ah to so­ and-so, and do not turn back on your heels after emigrating." So they will look, but will not know the man. He will announce it again three times. Then, they will give the bay'ah to al-Mansur, who will send a delegation of ten men to the Makhzumi, who will kill nine of them and leave one. Then he [i.e. al-Mansur] will send five, and he [i.e. the Makhzumi] will kill four and let one go. Then he will send three, and he will kill two and leave one. Then he [i.e. al-Mansur] will go to him [i.e. the Makhzumi], and Allah will make him victorious over him. Allah will kill him [i.e. the Makhzumi] and those with him, and none will escape except those who flee.

He [al-Mansur] will not leave a single Qurashi without killing him, so that if one were to look for a single Qurashi he would not find one, as today one might look for a man from Jurhum and similarly no find him. Likewise will Quraysh be killed, until none of them are found afterwards."

 

I say: If this athar and others like it have any authentic basis, then they might be referring to the fitnah of the Yemen mentioned previously at the end of the chapter regarding the fitnah of the Sufyani, and Allah knows better.

 

And he also narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"He will fight the people of the Yemen very fiercely between the two rivers, but Allah will defeat him and those with him. The people of the East [i.e. the followers of the Makhzumi] and those with him will be terrified at the sight of all of the dead bodies thrown into the river, and they will realize that they have been defeated. So their [i.e. the people of the Yemen's] cavalry will go to the Yemen, while they are camped between the two rivers, and Allah [ta'ala] will give victory to him and those with him. So the people's affairs will be righted, and they will enjoy a happy unity. Then they will go until they settle in Sham, where they will remain for a long time under a righteous rule.

Then, Qays will rise up against them, so the people of the Yemen will kill them until one would think that no-one from Qays is left alive, then a man from the people of the Yemen will stand up and say: "Fear Allah regarding your remaining brothers!"

Then the remnants of Qays will go until they settle between the two rivers, where they will assemble a great gathering, and appoint as their ruler a man from Banu Makhzum. Then, the ruler of the Yemen will die, and Qays will rejoice at his death. The Makhzumi will go forward, until when the last of them has crossed the Euphrates, the Makhzumi will die.

So the Yemen will revert to its borders, and Qays to its borders. The mawali will be angry about that, and on that day, they will be the majority of people. So they will say: "Come, let us appoint as our ruler a man from the people of the religion." So they will send a group from the people of the Yemen, a group from Mudhar, and a group from the mawali to Bayt al-Maqdis, where they will recite the Book of Allah [ta'ala] and ask Him to guide them to the correct choice. So that group will return, having appointed as their ruler a man from the mawali, and woe to the people of Sham and its land from his rule!

So he will go to Mudhar, intending to fight them. Then he will send a man from the people of the West, heavy-built with broad shoulders, who will kill whoever he meets in battle, until he enters Bayt al-Maqdis. Then he will be injured by a horse and die. At that time, the World will be in the worst state that it has ever been.

Then a man will rule after him from the people of Mudhar, who will kill the righteous people, accursed and evil. Then, al-Mudhari al-'Umani al-Qahtani will rule. He will live by the example of his brother the Mahdi, and at his hands, the city of the Romans will be conquered."

 

And he also narrated from Artah that he said:

"The Mahdi will settle in Bayt al-Maqdis, then after him will be Khulafa'(Caliphs) from his household. They will rule for a long time and they will become oppressive, until the people praise Banul-'Abbas and Banu Umayyah due to what they suffer."

Jarrah said: "Their time will last for two hundred years."

 

And he also narrated from Abu Qubayl that he said:

"After the Mahdi, no-one from his household will deal justly with the people. Their tyranny will continue for a long time after the Mahdi, until the people praise Banul-'Abbas, saying: "If only they were here in their place." So the people will continue like that, until they invade Constantinople with their ruler, who will be a righteous man, who will hand over the rule to 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam]. And the people will remain at ease as long as the kingdom of Banul-'Abbas has not been undone, but when their kingdom is undone, they will remain in fitan until the rising of the Mahdi."

 

And he also narrated from Sulayman ibn 'Isa, who was a man with great knowledge regarding the fitan, that he said:

"It has reached me that the Mahdi will remain for fourteen years in Bayt al-Maqdis, then he will die. Then, after him will be Sharif azZikr, from the people of Tubba', called Mansur, in Bayt al-Maqdis for twenty-one years. Fifteen of them will be of justice, followed by three years of tyranny, followed by three years of withholding wealth in which he will not give anyone a single dirham. He will distribute the people of the Dhimmah among his fighters. It is he who will expel the mawali to al-A'maq, and it is he who will trample the children of Isma'il like the cattle trample the twigs, and it is he against whom a mawla will rise up, whose name is the name of a Prophet, and whose kunyah is the kunyah of a Prophet. He will go to him from al-A'maq until he meets Mansur at the bottom of Ariha, where he will fight him and kill him.

Then, the mawla will rule, and he will banish the children of Qahtan and the children of Isma'il to the two cities of the treasures of the Arabs, al-Madinah and San'a'. It is he who will allow the Turks and the Romans to come out until they control the whole area from the depths of Antioch up to the mountain of al-Karmil in Palestine on the field of the city of 'Akka.

The mawla will rule for three years, then he will be killed. Then after him, the second Mahdi will come to power, and it is he who will fight the Romans and defeat them, conquering Constantinople and staying there for three years, four months and ten days. Then, 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam] will descend, and he will hand over the rule to him."

 

And he also narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"After the Mahdi, there will be a khalifah from the people of the Yemen, from Qahtan, the brother of the Mahdi in his religion, who will act as the Mahdi did. It is he who will conquer the city of the Romans and take its spoils."

And he also narrated from Artah that he said:

"There will be a peace-treaty between the Mahdi and the Romans. Then, the Mahdi will die, then a man from his household will come to power, who will rule justly for a little while, then he will draw his sword against the people of Palestine, who will rise up against him. So, he will seek help from the people of Jordan, remaining among them for two months. Then, he will draw his sword against them, and they will rise up against him. So, he will leave, fleeing, until he settles in Damascus. Have you seen the door-posts at the gate of al-Jabiyah at the place of the money-changers, five cubits from which there is a circular stone? There, he will be slaughtered, and the mention of his blood will not cease until it is said: "The Romans have sent their army, and have landed between Sur and 'Akka!" This will be the beginning of the Malahim [the great battles]."

 

And he also narrated from Artah that he said:

"It has reached me that the Mahdi will live for forty years, then he will die on his bed. Then, a man from Qahtan will come, with pierced ears, who will live according to the example of the Mahdi. He will remain for twenty years and then he will die, killed by the sword. Then, a man will come from the household of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa­sallam], rightly guided [literally: "a mahdi"] and of good example, who will conquer the City of Caesar (Rome). He will be the last amir from the Ummah of Muhammad [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]. During his time, the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) will come out, and during his time, 'Isa ibn Maryam(Jesus son of Mary) ['alayhis-salam] will descend."

The rule of al-Jahjah

 

Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Day and night will not come to an end until a man from the mawali called Jahjah rules."

And in the narration in Sahih Muslim, his name is given as Al-Jahjah, with the definite article. The authentic ahadith do not give any further details of Al-Jahjah or what will occur during his rule, however the fact that he is from the mawali may have some relevance to what has come in the previously-mentioned athar regarding the rule of the mawali that will follow the rule of the people of the Yemen.

The mawali [singular "mawla"] are the Muslims of non-Arab descent in general, whether they are freed slaves or not. They are called the mawali because traditionally, the non-Arab Muslims upon entering Islam would give their allegiance [wala'] to one of the Arab tribes.

 

The rule of the Qahtani

 

Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], that he said:

"The Hour will not come until a man comes from Qahtan, driving the people with his staff."

His saying [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]: "driving the people with his staff" implies that he will govern the people with a strong rule and keep them in order, as the shepherd keeps his flock in line with his staff. Others have viewed that it implies a rule of violence and force; however, this is perhaps a far-fetched interpretation, and it is further weakened by the athar describing the Qahtani as being similar to the Mahdi in his justice and righteosness, and Allah knows better.

According to some weak ahadith and athar, the Qahtani will come after the Mahdi. This is a problematic issue for those who believe that the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis­salam] will occur during the time of the Mahdi, as they say that the Mahdi will pass the rule to 'Isa ['alayhis-salam]. So, some of them suggested that the rule of the Qahtani will be after the death of 'Isa ibn Maryam (Jesus son of Mary) ['alayhis-salam], or that he will be a lesser governor under the authority of either the Mahdi or 'Isa ['alayhis-salam].

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Abd ar-Rahman ibn Qays ibn Jabir as-Sadafi that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"There will be, from my household, a man who will fill the earth with justice as it was filled with tyranny. Then, after him will be the Qahtani, and by Him Who sent me with the Truth, he (Qahtani) is not lesser than him (Mahdi)."

The other explanation, based on the position that I have given in this book, is that the Qahtani will be one of the rulers of the Muslims who will live during the period of time between the Mahdi and 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam]. This is supported by the athar that have already preceded, which imply that the Malhamah will take place during the rule of the Qahtani, which will follow the rule of the mawali.

Some athar narrated by Nu'aym ibn Hammad in Kitab al-Fitan also indicate that the Qahtani will be killed as a martyr during the Malhamah along with seventy of his amirs, and Allah knows better.

 

Chapter 13:

The Downfall of Technology

The downfall of technology is an important topic that needs to be mentioned and clarified in order to better understand what has been narrated regarding the events towards the end of time. In brief, the authentic texts contain many indications that by the time of the Malhamah, present-day high-level technology will be absent and the world will have gone back to a situation resembling the pre-industrial age.

Muslim narrated from Yasir ibn Jabir that he said: "A red wind blew in al-Kufah. So a man came who had nothing to say except: "O 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, the Hour has come."

He said: "So he sat up after he had been lying down, and said: "The Hour will not come until inheritance is not distributed and spoils are not rejoiced over." Then, he pointed his hand towards Sham, saying: "An enemy will gather its forces against the people of Islam, and the people of Islam will gather their forces against them."

I said: "The Romans, you mean?" He said: "Yes, and there will be during that battle a massive retreat. The Muslims will send a detachment to fight to the death, and to not return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until night intervenes between them, and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been killed. Then the Muslims will send another detachment to fight to the death, and to not return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until night intervenes between them, and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been killed. Then the Muslims will send another detachment to fight to the death, and to not return unless they are victorious. So they will fight until evening, and each side will come back without victory, and the whole detachment will have been killed.

Then on the fourth day, the remainder of the people of Islam will face them in battle, and Allah will cause them [i.e. the Romans] to be defeated, and they will be killed in such a slaughter that will never have been seen before, until a bird will pass over them and before it has left them it will drop dead. Brothers will search for each other, and will find only one man remaining out of a family of a hundred, so what spoils could they enjoy, and what inheritance could they distribute?

And while they are thus, they will hear of an even worse calamity than that. A person will come and call out to them that the Dajjal has taken their places among their families. So they will drop what is in their hands and go forward, sending ahead of them a detachment of ten horsemen. The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "I know their names, the names of their fathers, and the colours of their horses. They will be the best horsemen on the face of the earth that day."

The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] has informed us that he even knows the colours of their horses. Such details leave no room for those who interpret that the horses are a metaphor for modern means of transport. Also, the question remains why they would need to send ten horsemen to travel all the way from Constantinople to Sham in order to confirm the news of the coming of the Dajjal if the conveniences of modern communication technology were available to them.

Regarding his saying: "and they will be killed in such a slaughter that will never have been seen before, until a bird will pass over them and before it has left them it will drop dead," some people think that this is a reference to the effects of modern chemical weapons of mass destruction. However, this opinion holds little weight because other texts clarify that the reason for the birds dying will be due to the stench of the tens of thousands of decaying corpses after the battle, rather than events during the actual fighting itself, and Allah knows better.

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the Romans camp at al-A'maq or Dabiq. An army from al-Madinah, from the best of the people on earth on that day, will go out to face them. When they have lined up their ranks for battle, the Romans will say: "Do not stand between us and those who were taken from us as prisoners, let us fight them." So the Muslims will say: "No, by Allah, we will never abandon our brothers to you." So they will fight them, and one third of them [i.e. the Muslims] will flee, and Allah will never forgive them. One third will be killed, and they will be the best martyrs in Allah's sight. And one third will be victorious, and they will never again be subjected to trials. They will conquer Constantinople, and while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on the olive-trees, the Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places among your families!"

In this hadith, clear mention is made of swords: "They will conquer Constantinople, and while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on the olive-trees, the Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places among your families!"

If modern weaponry were in use, there would be no need for our Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] to have mentioned swords in particular. He could have used a more general term such as "aslihah", meaning simply "weapons", but he did not.

And he also narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "Have you heard of a city, one side of which is on the land, and one side of which is on the sea?" They said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah."

He said: "The Hour will not come until seventy thousand men of Banu Iss-haq invade it. When they come to it they will settle around it, and they will not fight with a single weapon or shoot a single arrow. They will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and the side that is on the sea will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and its other side will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and it will be opened up for them and they will enter it and take the spoils. Then, while they are distributing the spoils, a person will come to them, calling out and saying that the Dajjal has come out. So they will leave everything and go back."

The city mentioned in this hadith is Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. This hadith, along with many other texts, confirms to us that cities will be defended by walls in the age of the Malahim. Obviously, modern military technology, such as planes and missiles, renders defensive walls useless. It is interesting for me to note here that I was informed by a brother who returned from a trip to Istanbul that they have recently rebuilt the original walls of the city. Regarding the return of Constantinople to Christian rule, I will deal with that in a later chapter, if Allah wills.

And al-Hakim narrated from Abu Sa'id al-Khudri [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"Ya'juj and Ma'juj will open the barrier and come out against the people as Allah [ta'ala] said: "from every slope, pouring down." [Al-Anbiya': 96] So, they will wreak havoc on the Earth, and the Muslims will take cover in their cities and fortresses, taking their herds with them."

Again, we find mention of cities and towns defended by walls.

And an-Nasa'i narrated from Salamah ibn Nufayl as-Sukuni [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "There will always remain in my Ummah a group fighting on the way of Truth. Allah will turn peoples' hearts away from the Truth for them so that they can fight them and He can provide for them from them, until the coming of the Hour, and until the coming of Allah's Promise. And goodness will be tied in with the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection. And it has been revealed to me that I will not remain among you, and that you will follow me in groups, some of you striking the necks of others. And the abode of the believers will be in Sham."

And in his saying: "And goodness will be tied in with the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection" is an important message for us, and an indication that horses will again be used in war at the end of time. If modern military technology were indeed to remain in use until the end of time, then these words of the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa­sallam] would be in vain and redundant, which can never be.

 

And Ibn Majah narrated in the hadith of Abu Umamah al-Bahili [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"So their imam will lead them in the prayer, then when he has finished, 'Isa will say: "Open the door." So it will be opened, and behind it will be the Dajjal, accompanied by seventy thousand Jews, all of them with ornamented swords and armour. So when the Dajjal sees him, he will dissolve like salt dissolving in water, and run away fleeing."

Again, we find mention of swords.

These are only a few texts, whose authenticity is established, that contain unambiguous references to the decline of modern technology and its absence at the end of time. There are many weaker texts with similar indications, but I have only mentioned here the most authentic ones, as they constitute a clear enough proof against those who dispute this matter.

 

Chapter 14:

The Causes of the Downfall of Technology

Now, we must investigate a number of factors that may very likely interact with each other in the near future to lead to the downfall of the axis of technology and the international credit-based economy, around which the present world order revolves.

The decline of the oil industry:

The oil industry will soon be unable to manage the supply and demand ratios, and this means that oil prices will rise to such a level that people can no longer afford it. This phenomenon is called Peak Oil. The general public will gradually become deprived of oil, and this affects not only transport, but also every form of technology that relies originally on oil for energy, such as electricity. Therefore, imports and exports will reduce, and amenities that have become necessities in the modern world will become less accessible.

Some people are optimistic that the world's leaders will be able to find and institute alternative energy sources, and that the crisis will thus be averted. Realistically, however, they will probably not have enough time to mass-produce such alternatives and implement them on a global scale quickly enough, as a number of analysts have predicted that the decline may begin less than ten years from now.

War over resources:

With much of the remaining oil in the hands of the financial elite and the governments, then the powerful nations of the world such as America, Russia and China may end up resorting to an option that is simpler in the immediate term, but suicidal in the long term: fighting each other for control of the world's remaining oil resources.

The massive destruction that would be brought about by a new world war, probably involving nuclear weapons, would certainly mean the crippling and eventual disintegration of the modern American-Zionist dominated world order.

Economic crises:

Any one of the above two factors would have a disastrous effect on the international credit-based economies, which must inevitably fall one day in any case. In addition, the decline of technology would make it more difficult for the people to make use of their own money that is kept for them by the banks. It is natural that in such circumstances, the artificial currencies of the world will gradually decrease in their value and their circulation, and people will begin to return to a system based on the real currency of gold and silver and other properties. Already, a few Muslim organizations are working on preparing such a system. Many great works have been written on this subject in the west by Shaykh 'Abd al-Qadir al-Murabit and his colleague Ibrahim 'Umar Vadillo, and I recommend the reader to refer to them.

The return to the use of gold and silver as the main basis of currency at the end of time, along with being logically inevitable, is indicated in many texts.

 

Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Euphrates is about to uncover a treasure of gold, so whoever is present there, let him not take any of it."

And in the narration of Muslim:

"The Hour will not come until the Euphrates uncovers a mountain of gold over which the people will fight. Ninety-nine out of every hundred will be killed, but every one of them will say: "Perhaps I will be the one who survives."

And al-Hakim narrated from Ibn 'Abbas [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he mentioned the story of the Mahdi, and said:

"And the earth will cast forth its precious valuables." It was said: "What are its precious valuables?" He said: "Cylinders of gold and silver."

The fall of the credit-based economy and the re-institution of real wealth will mean the end of the financial enslavement that has been imposed on the Muslim world by the western financial elite that began during the final stages of the decline of the 'Uthmani dawlah. Only with that – along with a return to the pristine purity of the original message of Islam – can the Muslims expect to rise out of their current predicament and return to a state of independence and power, in which they will be the victors and not the victims.

 

Environmental and natural disasters:

Many researchers have concluded that if modern technology continues on its current path, the destruction that it will cause to the environment will make the planet inhospitable for sustaining life within a few centuries. According to the western nihilistic and atheistic worldview, which does not recognize the existence of any will higher than that of man, nor of any Divine purpose, such a hypothesis is considered acceptable and indeed inevitable.

However, the intelligent and wise Muslim looks at these things differently. The Book of Allah is filled with examples of how Allah [subhanahu wa-ta'ala] dealt with the previous nations who rejected Him and caused corruption in the land. It is perfectly consistent with Allah's Sunan [ways of dealing] that He might bring about the destruction of the modern powerful nations by depriving them of the very means by which they have spread corruption and tyranny on the earth – their precious technology and usury-based economy, upon which they are utterly dependent.

Perhaps the great devastation brought about by Hurricane Katrina in America recently is only a glimpse of what would happen if greater disasters were to strike, such as the eruption of the so-called "Supervolcano" in northwestern America, which would have a similar effect to a nuclear winter across the whole of the North American continent, or such as a major earthquake in a heavily populated area, or a tsunami such as the one that occurred in the Indian ocean over a year ago. Any of these things would bring great material and economic damage.

 

Chapter 15:

The results of the downfall of technology

It would only take two or three of the above-mentioned factors to bring about a fundamental change in the present-day world order. Powerful nations, along with those who relied on them, would fall into decline. People living more traditional lifestyles would likely fare much better, as they tend to rely less on technology and modern amenities.

What is certain is that with the decline of the economy and the means of transport required to import and export vital necessities such as food and medicine, large sections of the world's population – both in poorer countries as well as some of those considered to be more developed – will be at risk of death through starvation, disease, and the chaos that would inevitably result from general social breakdown, and the powerful nations would be unable to do much about it.

We could be looking at a major reduction of the world's population.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ali [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said:

"The Mahdi will not come until one third die, one third are killed, and one third remain."

That is, one third will be killed due to fighting or plunder, and one third will die of other means such as hunger and disease.

And Ibn Majah narrated in the hadith of Abu Umamah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] mentioned the fitnah of the Dajjal, and he said:

"Then al-Madinah along with its people will be shaken by three tremors, and it will expel its filth as the furnace expels the filth of the iron. And that day will be called the Day of Purification [yawm al-khalas]."

So Umm Shurayk bint Abil-'Akr said: "O Messenger of Allah, where will the Arabs be on that day?" He said: "They will be, on that day, very few. Most of them will be in Bayt al-Maqdis, and their imam will be a righteous man. So, when their imam has gone forward to pray the Subh prayer, 'Isa ibn Maryam will descend at dawn."

Again, I refer to the example of the event of Hurricane Katrina in America in which we saw the terrible results of the social breakdown that occurred on a local scale in one city. Imagine a similar event happening on a much greater scale and affecting entire lands and continents.

 

Chapter 16:

What has been narrated regarding the desolation of the lands and the decline in the world's population towards the end of time

A number of texts describe that large sections of the earth will suffer "kharab", meaning "desolation" or "ruin", towards the end of time, apparently confirming what we have suggested in the previous chapter, and Allah knows better.

Al-Hakim narrated from Ka'b that he said:

"The Jazirah will be safe from ruin until Armenia is made desolate, and Egypt will be safe from desolation until the Jazirah is made desolate, and al-Kufah will be safe from desolation until Egypt is made desolate, and the Malhamah will not occur until al-Kufah is made desolate, and the City of Kufr will not be conquered until the Malhamah occurs, and the Dajjal will not emerge until the City of Kufr is conquered."

The Jazirah, as we have said, is not the Arabian Peninsula, but rather it is the old name of the area between the Tigris and Euphrates river. Today it covers the northern areas of Syria and Iraq.

And al-Qurtubi narrated in at-Tadhkirah from Hudhayfah ibn al-Yaman [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"Desolation will not begin to overtake the lands of the Earth until Egypt is made desolate, and Egypt will be safe from desolation until al-Basrah is made desolate.

The desolation of al-Basrah will be from flooding, the desolation of Egypt from the drying up of the Nile, the desolation of Makkah and the desolation of al-Madinah from hunger, the desolation of Yemen from locusts, the desolation of al-Ubullah from siege, the desolation of Persia from brigands (Bandits, robbers, plunderes), the desolation of the Turks from the Daylamites (Persians), the desolation of the Daylamites from the Armenians, the desolation of the Armenians from the Khazars, the desolation of the Khazars from the Turks, the desolation of the Turks from lightning strikes, the desolation of Sind from India, the desolation of India from China, the desolation of China from drought, the desolation of the Abyssinians from earthquakes, the desolation of az-Zawra' from the Sufyani, the desolation of ar-Rawha' from being swallowed by the earth, and the desolation of 'Iraq from killing."

 

Chapter 17:

The Desolation of al-Madinah

It is narrated that there will be two occasions in which al-Madinah will be emptied and left desolate. The first will be due to evil rulers, and the second desolation will be at the end of time, when Allah will send a pleasant wind that will take the soul of every believer. And Allah knows better.

Abu Dawud narrated from Mu'adh ibn Jabal [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The flourishing of Bayt al-Maqdis will be followed by the desolation of Yathrib, and the desolation of Yathrib will be followed by the coming of the Malhamah, and the coming of the Malhamah will be followed by the conquest of Constantinople, and the conquest of Constantinople will be followed by the emergence of the Dajjal."

Then he [i.e. Mu'adh] struck his hand on the shoulder of 'Umar and said: "By Allah, that is as true as the fact that you are sitting here."

This does not necessarily mean that the Malhamah will immediately follow the desolation of al-Madinah, because other texts mention that al-Madinah will be re-inhabited before the coming of the Dajjal, and it is known that the Dajjal will come out shortly after the Malhamah and the conquest of Constantinople.

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallah 'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"They will leave al-Madinah while it is in the best state that it was ever in, so that the only inhabitants will be al-'awafi," meaning the scavenging birds and wild beasts, "then two goatherds from Muzaynah will head towards al-Madinah, leading their goats, and they will find it deserted. Then when they get to Thaniyyat al-Wada', they will fall down on their faces."

This apparently refers to the second and final desolation of al-Madinah at the end of time, and Allah knows better.

 

Ibn 'Abdil-Barr narrated in his Tamhid from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Al-Madinah will be left by its people in the best state that it was ever in."

"It was said: "Who will make them leave, O Abu Hurayrah?" He said: "The evil rulers."

 

And al-Qurtubi narrated from Jabir that he heard 'Umar ibn al-Khattab on the minbar saying: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

 

"The people of al-Madinah will leave it. Then, they will return to it and inhabit it until it is full. Then, they will leave it, and never return to it ever again."

 

Chapter 18:

Climate changes towards the End of Time

 

Contrary to what environmentalists are predicting about global warming and the ever-rising sea level, the texts appear to indicate that at some point towards the end of time, matters will take the opposite turn with severe winters, a lowering of the sea level, and a decline in temperature that will change the climate and eventually cause the Arabian Peninsula to become full of gardens and rivers.

Ahmad narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until wealth flows in abundance, so that a man will come with the zakah of his wealth and will find no-one to accept it; and until the land of the Arabs goes back to being meadows and rivers; and until Al-Harj becomes widespread."

It was said: "And what is Al-Harj, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "Killing, killing."

A decline in temperature would eventually lead to temperate areas such as northern Europe becoming arctic, and the tropical and subtropical areas that comprise much of the Muslim lands becoming temperate. All of this would mean that the deserts of North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula would become fertile again, as they would have been thousands of years ago, during and after the last ice age.

And Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud [radhiyallahu 'anhu], from the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] that he said:

"When there is a scream [sayhah] in Ramadhan, then there will be bloodshed in Shawwal, and the tribes will form groups in Dhul-Qi'dah, and blood will be spilt in Dhul-Hijjah, and al-Muharram! What will happen in al-Muharram?" saying it three times, "Indeed, indeed! The people will be killed in a great massacre."

He said: "We said: "What is the scream, O Messenger of Allah?" He said: "This will be in the middle of Ramadhan, on a Friday morning. That will be when the month of Ramadhan begins on a Friday night. There will be a blast [haddah] that will awaken one who is asleep, and bring the young women out of their rooms, on a Friday night during a year of many earthquakes and severe cold. So when Ramadhan begins on a Friday night in that year, then when you have prayed Fajr on Friday in the middle of Ramadhan, then enter your houses, close your doors, block your windows, cover yourselves, and block your ears. When you sense the scream, fall down in prostration to Allah [ta'ala] and say: "Subhanal-Quddus, subhanal-Quddus, rabbunal-Quddus [Glory be to the Most Holy, glory be to the Most Holy, our Lord is the Most Holy]." For whoever does that will survive, and whoever does not will be destroyed."

Although this hadith is weak, it contains a number of interesting points. Notice his saying: "during a year of many earthquakes and severe cold."

If what is narrated about the blast [al-haddah] is correct, the cause of the blast might be the impact of a small meteorite with the earth, which would send clouds of dust into the atmosphere, reducing the level of sunlight and causing the earth's temperature to drop.

And al-Hakim narrated from Khalid ibn Yazid that he said, describing the events of the Malhamah: "On that day, Allah will strike with His sword and stab with His spear [i.e. with the swords and spears of the Muslims], and the Muslims will follow them in pursuit until they reach the gulf that is at Constantinople, and they will find that its water has dried up. So, they will cross over to the city and settle in front of it, and Allah will demolish its walls with their saying: "Allahu akbar [Allah is the Greatest]." Then, they will enter it and distribute its spoils with their shields."

His saying: "until they reach the gulf that is at Constantinople, and they will find that its water has dried up," indicates that the sea level will be much lower at that time than it is today, the logical result of an increase in the size of the polar ice caps.

 

Chapter 19:

The Romans and the Malahim [the great battles]

The Romans [ar-Rum] are the Christian nations of Europe in general, and they also include the people of Asia Minor [present-day Turkey], which continued to be referred to as "the land of the Romans" ["Bilad ar-Rum"] even after the Muslim Turks conquered it.

Muslim narrated from al-Mustawrid al-Qurashi that he said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] saying:

"The Hour will come when the Romans are the majority of people."

So 'Amr ibn al-'As said to him: "Watch what you say." He said: "I say what I heard from the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam]."

He said: "If you say that, it is because they have four qualities: they are the most able of people to cope with tribulation, the quickest of them to recover after an affliction, the readiest of them to return to battle after fleeing, and the best of them to the poor, the orphan and the weak. And they have a fifth good quality: they are the strongest of them in resisting the oppression of kings."

This hadith is perhaps relevant to what we have mentioned in the previous chapters regarding the disastrous events that will very likely afflict the world in the near future. The Romans' qualities of being the most able to cope with tribulations and the quickest to recover after afflictions will cause them to come out relatively better-off than the other nations.

The conflict between the Muslims and the Romans began with their initial rejection of the call of the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam], and it has lasted throughout history and up to today. It will continue until the Malhamah, the final battle in which the Muslims will defeat the Romans and conquer their lands, not long before the coming of the Dajjal and the descent of 'Isa ibn Maryam ['alayhis-salam], as we will see in the coming chapters, if Allah wills.

During the early centuries of Islam, the two leading cities of the Europeans were Rome, the home of the western Catholic church, and Constantinople, the home of the eastern Orthodox church. Despite the fierce divisions that existed between these two churches, they often joined forces to oppose the Muslim advances on their borders. The Muslims had already conquered the Romans' territories in Sham, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia, and parts of Asia Minor.

Many wars were fought over the following centuries, with alternating victories and defeats. The crusades that were waged in Palestine and Syria ultimately ended in failure and defeat for the Christians, and their ranks were further divided when the crusaders sacked Constantinople on their way back from the Holy Land.

 

In Andalusia, the Christians succeeded in conquering the entire peninsula, after it had been ruled by the Muslims for eight centuries, and the Muslim and Jewish populations were killed, enslaved, or driven out. At the same time, as this was happening in the West, the Muslim 'Uthmani Turks in the east finally conquered Constantinople, which had never fully recovered after it had been sacked by the crusaders a few centuries before. It became the capital city of the 'Uthmani dawlah and was renamed Islambul ["the City of Islam"]. From there, the 'Uthmani sultans continued conquering the lands of Eastern Europe, until their defeat at Vienna, after which the borders of the 'Uthmani dawlah began to recede.

The beginning of the decline of the 'Uthmani dawlah coincided with the rise of the Industrial Revolution began in Europe. A now highly-advanced and secular-minded Europe embarked on a new series of crusades under the name of colonialism, and the Muslims were caught unprepared. The rule of the 'Uthmaniyyun in Asia Minor, the rule of the Mughals in India and the rule of the Ashraf in the Maghrib were all undermined by a mixture of foreign-hatched plots, conspiracies and military invasions, all of which resulted in the downfall of Islamic rule and the establishment of secular, European-style regimes in the Muslim world, subservient to the Christian nations and economically dependant on them, and this unfortunate situation has continued up to the present day.

So as we can see, the Romans have evolved throughout history into many generations and nations.

 

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Ibn Muhayriz that he said: "The Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"Persia will only take one or two thrusts, and then there will be no Persia after that. But the Romans will have many generations: whenever one generation goes, another one will take their place."

And their most recent manifestations are undoubtedly the United States of America, the Russian Federation, and the European Union. With the inevitable decline of America, and perhaps to a lesser degree that of Russia, the European Union will take on a more prominent role, opening a new chapter in the age-old confrontation between the Muslims and the Romans.

 

Chapter 20:

The Turks

The Turks are a large group of peoples whose original homeland is central and eastern Asia. They include the Tatars, the Mongols, and all of their descendents. As we have already mentioned in the previous chapter, the present-day inhabitants of Turkey are descendents of both the original Turkic Muslim invaders from the east, and the original Byzantine Roman inhabitants of Asia Minor.

The current situation involving Turkey and the European Union may have some long-term relevance to what has been narrated regarding the events at the end of time.

A number of weak athar indicate an alliance between the Romans and the Turks that will take place before the coming of the Mahdi.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from 'Ammar ibn Yasir [radhiyallahu 'anhuma] that he said:

"There will be signs for the household of your Prophet, so stay in whatever land you are until: the Turks will sweep down against a weak khalifah, who will then be deposed two years after his bay'ah, and the Turks make an alliance with the Romans, and the western part of the masjid of Damascus will collapse into the earth, and three people will arise in Sham, and the Turks' border will be up to the Jazirah and that of the Romans up to Palestine, and 'Abdullah will pursue 'Abdullah until their armies meet in battle at Qirqisiya."

Regardless of the question of the authenticity of this athar and others like it, the events that have taken place over the last century since the time of Ataturk have confirmed the truth of the alliance between the secular government of Turkey and the Europeans. Turkey has long been a member of NATO, and now it is on the doorstep of entering the European Union.

It appears that in the near future, the secularists will have the final word in Turkey, and that all of the necessary compromises will be made allowing Turkey to join the banner of a united, secular, majority nominally Christian Europe. Due among other things to its geographical location, it would then serve as the perfect "guard dog" on the frontiers of Europe, and it would play a very important role in any future confrontation between the Muslims and the Europeans. All of this appears to be indicated in the authentic ahadith regarding the Malhamah and the conquest of Constantinople at the end of time.

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Messenger of Allah [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said:

"The Hour will not come until the Romans camp at al-A'maq or Dabiq. An army from al-Madinah, from the best of the people on earth on that day, will go out to face them. When they have lined up their ranks for battle, the Romans will say: "Do not stand between us and those who were taken from us as prisoners, let us fight them." So the Muslims will say: "No, by Allah, we will never abandon our brothers to you." So they will fight them, and one third of them [i.e. the Muslims] will flee, and Allah will never forgive them. One third will be killed, and they will be the best martyrs in Allah's sight. And one third will be victorious, and they will never again be subjected to trials. They will conquer Constantinople, and while they are distributing the spoils, having hung their swords on the olive-trees, the Shaytan will call out to them: "The Masih has taken your places among your families!"

This hadith describes the events of al-Malhamah al-Kubra, the final battle between the Muslims and the Christians at the end of time. In the majority of narrations of this hadith, the wording is: "Do not stand between us and those who were taken from us as prisoners [alladhina subu minna], let us fight them." The meaning of this wording is supported by many athar narrated by Nu'aym ibn Hammad in Kitab al-Fitan regarding the role that the mawali, or the non-Arab Muslims, will play during the Malhamah. It also contains an indication that there will be a division between the Romans at the time of the Malhamah, and that a group of them will have been taken captive by the Muslims and then themselves entered into Islam.

It is narrated that the Mahdi will fight the Turks – after their alliance with the Romans – and that he will take a number of them captive and then free them.

Nu'aym ibn Hammad narrated from Artah that he said:

"The first flag sent by the Mahdi will be against the Turks. He will defeat them, and take what they have of captives and wealth. Then, he will go to Sham and conquer it. Then, he will set free every slave that is with him, and pay his companions their value."

It is possible that those freed Turk slaves or their descendents will be the ex-captives referred to in the hadith of Abu Hurayrah mentioned above, and that the Malhamah will be fought between the Romans – meaning the Christian Europeans and their allies from the secular Turks – on one side, and Muslims – who will include Arabs, Turks and others – on the other side, and Allah knows better.

In some narrations it is: "Who took prisoners from amongst us [alladhina sabaw minna], let us fight them." That is, let us fight the Muslims who took our people prisoner. Imam an-Nawawi [rahimahullah] mentioned in his Sharh of Sahih Muslim that both wordings may in fact be correct, in that the Muslims might have taken a number of the Romans captive in war, who later entered Islam, joined the Muslim army, and that these Muslim Romans will then take the Christian Romans captive. An-Nawawi then mentioned that this was quite a common phenomenon during the wars that took place in his time between the Muslims and the Romans.

And Muslim narrated from Abu Hurayrah [radhiyallahu 'anhu] that the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] said: "Have you heard of a city, one side of which is on the land, and one side of which is on the sea?" They said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah."

He said: "The Hour will not come until seventy thousand men of Banu Ishaq invade it. When they come to it they will settle around it, and they will not fight with a single weapon or shoot a single arrow. They will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and the side that is on the sea will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and its other side will collapse. Then they will say: "La ilaha illallahu wallahu akbar [There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest]," and it will be opened up for them and they will enter it and take the spoils. Then, while they are distributing the spoils, a person will come to them, calling out and saying that the Dajjal has come out. So they will leave everything and go back."

The city mentioned in this hadith is Constantinople, present-day Istanbul. This hadith clearly informs us that Constantinople will be conquered a second time, and that the first conquest by the Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih [rahimahullah] was not the conquest mentioned in this hadith.

 

Al-'Allamah Ahmad Shakir [rahimahullah] confirmed this when he said:

"The conquest of Constantinople whose tidings are given in the hadith will be in the near or distant future at a time known only to Allah ['azza wa-jall], and this will be the true conquest of it, when the Muslims return to their religion, which they have now turned away from. As for its conquest by the Turks that occurred before our time, then this was but the preparation for the greater conquest. Then afterwards it went out of the hands of the Muslims, from the time that their government there announced that they were a non-Islamic, non-religious government, allied themselves with the kafir enemies of Islam, and legislated man-made laws of shirk and kufr. And the Islamic conquest will return to it, if Allah [ta'ala] wills, as the Prophet [sallallahu 'alayhi wa-sallam] gave tidings of it."

As for Banu Iss-haq [the descendents of Ishaq], al-Hafidh Ibn Kathir [rahimahullah] said that they are the Romans who will have become Muslims at the end of time. Ishaq ['alayhis-salam] had two sons, Ya'qub and al-'Is. Ya'qub was also called Isra'il, so his descendents are Banu Isra'il. As for al-'Is, it is said that his descendents are the inhabitants of Asia Minor, from whom the Romans are descended, and Allah knows better.

 

It is narrated in some athar that a group of Jews will become Muslims at the hands of the Mahdi.

Ad-Dani narrated from Ibn Shawdhab that he said:

"He is called the Mahdi because he will be guided to one of the mountains of Sham, from which he will bring out some of the scrolls of the Tawrah, with which he will debate with the Jews. So a group of the Jews on that day will become Muslims at his hands."

If this is correct, then it is not unreasonable to suggest that both groups, that is the Muslim Romans and the Muslims of Banu Isra'il, may also be part of the army that conquers Constantinople, and Allah knows better.

 

 

 

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